anatomy 4

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anatomy 4
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  1. Knee Joint
    • Quadriceps Muscle Group
    • Rectus Femoris
    • Vastus Lateralis
    • Vastus Intermedius
    • Vastus Medialis
    • Popliteus
    • Biceps Femoris
    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus
  2. Rectus Femoris
    Origin:




      • Anterior inferior iliac spine(straight head) & the ilium above acetabulum (reflected head)




    Insertion:




      • Quadriceps tendon to patella (via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia)






    Major Arteries:




      • Lateral femoral circumflex artery





    Neural Innervation:




      • Femoral nerve(L4-L5, S1
      • Concentric Functions:




        • Knee extension


        • Hip flexion





      Eccentric Functions:




        • Decelerates hip extension & knee flexion during functional movements


        • Decelerates knee flexion, adduction & internal rotation during heel strike of gait





      Isometric Function:




        • Dynamically stabilizes the knee during functional movements





      Related Muscles




        • Vastus Lateralis


        • Vastus Intermedius


        • Vastus Medialis





      Antagonists:




      • Hamstrings






      Exercises:




      • Leg Exercise Videos








  3. Vastus Lateralis
    • Origin:
      • Lateral surface of the femur (upper intertrochanteric line, base of greater trochanter, lateral linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge & lateral intermuscular septum)
    • Insertion:
      • Lateral quadriceps tendon to patella (via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Femoral artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Posterior division of femoral nerve (L3-L4
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Knee extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates knee flexion, adduction & internal rotation during heel strike of gait

      • Isometric Function:
        • Dynamically stabilizes the knee during functional movements

      • Related Muscles
        • Vastus Intermedius
        • Vastus Medialis
        • Rectus Femoris

      • Antagonists:
        • Hamstrings
          • Biceps Femoris
          • Semimembranosus
          • Semitendinosus
      • Exercises:
        • Leg Exercise Videos
  4. Vastus Intermedius
    • Origin:
      • Anterior & lateral shaft of femur
    • Insertion:
      • Patellar tendon (quadriceps tendon to patella), via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia


    • Major Arteries:
      • Femoral artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Femoral nerve
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Knee extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates knee extension & internal rotation

      • Isometric Function:
        • Dynamically stabilizes the knee during functional movements

      • Related Muscles
        • Vastus Lateralis
        • Vastus Medialis
        • Rectus Femoris

      • Antagonists:
        • Hamstrings
          • Biceps Femoris
          • Semimembranosus
          • Semitendinosus

      • Exercises:
        • Leg Exercise Videos
  5. Vastus Medialis
    • Origin:
      • Medial surface of femur (lower intertrochanteric line, spiral line, medial linea aspera & medial intermuscular septum)
    • Insertion:
      • Medial patella (via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Lateral femoral circumflex artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Femoral nerve
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Knee extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates knee flexion, abduction & internal rotation

      • Isometric Function:
        • Dynamically stabilizes the knee during functional movements
        • Stabilizes patella

      • Related Muscles
        • Vastus Intermedius
        • Vastus Lateralis
        • Rectus Femoris

      • Antagonists:
        • Hamstrings
          • Biceps Femoris
          • Semimembranosus
          • Semitendinosus


      • Exercises:
        • Leg Exercise Videos
  6. Popliteus
    • Origin:
      • Posterior shaft of tibia above soleal line & below tibial condyles
    • Insertion:
      • Middle of three facets on lateral surface of lateral condyle of femur.


    • Major Arteries:
      • Popliteal artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial nerve (L5, S1
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Medial rotation & flexion of the knee
        • Helps to withdraw the lateral meniscus during knee flexion

      • Eccentric Functions:


      • Isometric Function:


      • Related Muscles
      • Antagonists:
        • Quadriceps
          • Rectus Femoris
          • Vastus Lateralis
          • Vastus Medialis
          • Vastus Intermedius

      • Exercises:
  7. Biceps Femoris
    • Origin:
      • Long Head
        • Ischial tuberosity, part of the sacrotuberous ligament (tendon also common to semitendinosus)
      • Short Head
        • Lateral lip of the linea aspera below the gluteal tuberosity (between the adductor magnus & vastus lateralis)
    • Insertion:
      • Long Head
        • Fibular head (primarily) & lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle
      • Short Head
        • Styloid process of head of fibula. lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle



    • Major Arteries:
      • Inferior gluteal artery
      • Popliteal artery
      • Perforating arteries

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Long Head
        • Tibial portion of sciatic nerve


      • Short Head
        • Common peroneal portion of sciatic nerve (both L5 & S1
        • Concentric Functions:
          • Long Head
            • Knee flexion & tibial external rotation


          • Short Head
            • Accelerates knee flexion & tibial external rotation


        • Eccentric Functions:
          • Long Head
            • Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion & tibial internal rotation at mid-stance of the gait cycle
            • Assists in deceleration of anterior rotation of the pelvis
            • Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex


          • Short Head
            • Decelerates knee extension & tibial internal rotation at mid-stance of the gait cycle


        • Isometric Function:
          • Long Head
            • Assists dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movement


          • Short Head
            • Assists dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movement patterns
        • Related Muscles
          • Semimembrinosis
          • Semitendinosis
          • Gluteus Maximus

        • Antagonist:
          • Quadriceps
          • Iliopsoas
        • Exercises:
  8. Semimembranosus
    • Origin:
      • Upper outer quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion:
      • Posterior aspect of the medial condyle of tibia below articular margin (fascia over popliteus & oblique popliteal ligament)



    • Major Arteries:
      • Profunda femoris
      • Gluteal artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial portion of sciatic nerve (L5, S1-S2
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Knee flexion & internal rotation of the tibia
        • Hip extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion & tibial external rotation
        • Assists to decelerate anterior pelvic rotation

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movement

      • Related Muscles
        • Biceps Femoris
        • Semitendinosis
        • Gluteus Maximus

      • Antagonist:
        • Quadriceps
        • Iliopsoas
      • Exercises
  9. Semitendinosus
    • Origin:
      • Upper inner quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity & part of the sacrotuberous ligament
    • Insertion:
      • Proximal aspect of the medial tibial condyle (pes anserine)



    • Major Arteries:
      • Inferior gluteal artery
      • Perforating arteries

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial portion of sciatic nerve (L5, S1
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Knee flexion & internal rotation of the tibia
        • Hip extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion & tibial external rotation
        • Assists to decelerate anterior pelvic rotation

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movements

      • Related Muscles
        • Semimembrinosis
        • Rectus Femoris
        • Gluteus Maximus

      • Antagonist:
        • Quadriceps
        • Iliopsoas
      • Exercises
  10. Foot & Ankle
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Soleus
    • TibialisPosterior
    • Tibialis Anterior
    • Peroneus Longus
    • Peroneus Brevis
    • Peroneus Tertius
    • Flexor Digitorum Longus
    • Flexor Hallucis Longus
    • Extensor Digitorum Longus
    • Extensor Hallucis Longus
  11. Gastrocnemius
    • Origin:
      • Lateral head:
        • Posterior surface of lateral condyle of femur & highest of three facets on lateral condyle
      • Medial head
        • Posterior medial condyle of femur (posterior surface of femur above medial condyle)


    • Insertion
      • Achilles Tendon (calcaneus to middle of three facets on posterior aspect of calcaneus)



    • Major Arteries:
      • Sural arteries

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial nerve (S1-S2
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Flexion of the knee (primarily during swing phase of gait)
        • Plantarflexion of the ankle
        • Subtalar joint supination (at the end of mid-stance)

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates ankle dorsiflexion
        • Decelerates femoral internal rotation
        • Decelerates subtalar joint pronation
      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps stabilize the foot & ankle complex
        • Helps stabilize the subtalar joint & tibio-femoral joint during transitional movements
      • Related Muscles
        • Soleus

      • Antagonist:
        • Quadriceps (leg extension)
          • Rectus Femoris
          • Vastus Lateralis
          • Vastus Medialis
          • Vastus Intermedius
        • Tibialis Anterior (dorsiflexion)

      • Exercises
  12. Soleus
    • Origin:
      • Posterior surface of the fibular head & proximal one-third of its shaft & from the posterior side of the tibia near thesoleal line
    • Insertion
      • Achilles tendon (to middle of three facets on posterior surface of calcaneus)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Sural arteries

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial nerve (S1, S2)
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Plantar flexion of the ankle
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates subtalar joint pronation
        • Decelerates internal rotation of the lower leg
        • Decelerates ankle dorsiflexion
      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the foot & ankle complex
      • Related Muscles
        • Gastrocnemius

      • Antagonist:
        • Tibialis Anterior
        • Extensor Digitorum Longus
        • Extensor Hallucis Longus
      • Exercises:
  13. TibialisPosterior
    • Origin:
      • Upper half of posterior shaft of tibia & upper half of fibula and adjacent interosseus membrane
    • Insertion
      • Tuberosity of navicular bone, all tarsal bones (except talus) & plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament


    • Major Artery:
      • Posterior tibial artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial nerve (L4, L5
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Plantarflexion & inversion (supination) of foot at ankle
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates the dorsiflexion & eversion of the foot.
      • Isometric Function:
        • Stabilizes the(medial longitudinal) arch of the foot
      • Related Muscles
        • Peroneus Longus
        • Peroneus Brevis


      • Antagonist:
        • Tibialis Anterior
      • Exercises:
  14. Tibialis Anterior
    • Origin:
      • Lateral tibia (Upper half of lateral shaft of tibia & interosseous membrane)
    • Insertion
      • Medial & plantar aspect of medial cuneiform & base of 1st metatarsal


    • Major Arteries:
      • Anterior tibial artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve (L4-L5
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Dorsiflexion & inversion of the foot at ankle
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates plantarflexion & eversion of the foot at ankle
      • Isometric Function:
        • Holds up medial longitudinal arch of foot
      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonists:
        • Tibialis Posterior
        • Gastrocnemius
        • Soleus
      • Exercises
  15. Peroneus Longus
    • Origin:
      • Upper two thirds of lateral shaft of fibula , head of fibula and superior tibiofibular joint
    • Insertion
      • Lateral surface of the medial cuneiform & plantar aspect (lateral side) of base of 1st metatarsal


    • Major Arteries:
      • Fibular (peroneal) artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5,S1
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Plantar flexion & eversion (pronation) of the foot
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates ankle dorsiflexion
      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps stabilizes the foot & ankle complex
        • Supports the (lateral longitudinal & transverse) arches of the foot
      • Related Muscles
        • Peroneus Brevis
        • Peroneus Tertius

      • Antagonist:
        • Tibialis Anterior
        • Extensor Digitorum Longus
        • Extensor Hallucis Longus

      • Exercises:
  16. Peroneus Brevis
    • Origin:
      • Lower two thirds lateral shaft of fibula
    • Insertion
      • Tuberosity of base of 5th metatarsal


    • Major Artery:
      • Peroneal Artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Superficial peroneal nerve (L5, S1
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Plantar flexion & eversion (pronation) the foot at ankle
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates ankle dorsiflexion
      • Isometric Function:
        • . Supports (lateral longitudinal) arch of foot
      • Related Muscles
        • Peroneus Longus
        • Peroneus Tertius

      • Antagonist:
        • Tibialis Anterior
        • Extensor Digitorum Brevis
        • Extensor Hallucis Brevis

      • Exercises
  17. Peroneus Tertius
    • Origin:
      • Distal (third quarter) of anterior shaft of fibula
    • Insertion
      • Dorsal surface (shaft & base) of 5th metatarsal


    • Major Arteries:
      • Deep fibular nerve

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Deep peroneal nerve (L5,S1
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Dorsiflexion (weak) & eversion (pronation) of the foot
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates ankle plantar flexion
      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps stabilize the foot & ankle complex
      • Related Muscles
        • Peroneus Brevis
        • Peroneus Longus

      • Antagonist:
        • Tibialis Posterior
      • Exercises
  18. Flexor Digitorum Longus
    • Origin:
      • Posterior shaft of tibia below soleal line & by broad aponeurosis from fibula
    • Insertion
      • Base of distal phalanges of lateral four toes


    • Major Artery:
      • Posterior tibial artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial nerve (S1-S2
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Flexes distal phalanges of lateral four toes and
        • Flexes foot at ankle
        • Supports lateral longitudinal arch
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises
  19. Extensor Digitorum Longus
    • Origin:
      • Upper 2/3 of the anterior shaft of fibula, interosseous membrane & superior tibiofibular joint
    • Insertion
      • Extensor expansion of lateral four toes


    • Major Arteries:
      • Anterior tibial artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1)
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Extends toes and extends foot at ankle
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises
  20. Extensor Hallucis Longus
    • Origin:
      • Middle half of anterior shaft of fibula
    • Insertion
      • Base of distal phalanx of great toe


    • Major Arteries:
      • Anterior tibial artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Extends big toe & foot.
        • Inverts foot
        • Tightens subtalar joints
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises
  21. Elbow Joint
    • Biceps Brachii
    • Brachialis
    • Brachioradialis
    • Triceps Brachii
    • Anconeus
    • Supinator
    • Pronator Teres
    • Pronator Quadratus
  22. Biceps Brachii




  • Brachialis
    • Origin:
      • Anterior lower half of humerus & medial and lateral intermuscular septa
    • Insertion:
      • Posterior border of radial tuberosity (over bursa) & bicipital aponeurosis to deep fascia & subcutaneous ulna


    • Major Arteries:
      • Radial recurrent artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6) (from lateral cord)
      • Small supply from radial nerve (C7
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Elbow flexion
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Deceleration of elbow extension

      • Isometric Function:


      • Related Muscles
        • Biceps Brachii
        • Brachioradialis

      • Antagonist:
        • Triceps Brachii
        • Anconeus
      • Exercises:
        • Biceps Exercise Videos
  • Brachioradialis
    • Origin:
      • Upper two thirds of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus & lateral intermuscular septum
    • Insertion:
      • Base of the styloid process (distal radius)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Radial recurrent artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Radial nerve (C5-C6
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Elbow flexion
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Deceleration of elbow extension

      • Isometric Function:


      • Related Muscles
        • Biceps Brachii
        • Brachialis

      • Antagonist:
        • Triceps Brachii
        • Anconeus
      • Exercises:
        • Forearm Exercise Videos
  • Triceps Brachii
    • Origin:
      • Long head
        • Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
      • Lateral head
        • Posterior humerus (upper half)
      • Medial head
        • Posterior humerus (deep on lower half posterior humerus inferomedial to spiral groove & both intermuscular septa)
    • Insertion
      • Posterior part of upper surface of olecranon process of ulna & posterior capsule


    • Major Arteries:
      • Deep brachial artery (profunda brachii)

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Radial nerve
      • Axillary nerve (long head
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Long head
          • Elbow extension
          • Assists in shoulder extension & abduction
        • Lateral head
          • Elbow extension
        • Medial head
          • Elbow extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Long head
          • Assists in deceleration of shoulder flexion
          • Assists in shoulder extension & abduction
        • Lateral head
          • Decelerates elbow flexion
        • Medial head
          • Decelerates elbow flexion

      • Isometric Function:
        • Long head
          • Helps dynamically stabilize the glenohumeral joint
        • Lateral head

        • Medial head

      • Related Muscles
        • Anconeus

      • Antagonist:
        • Biceps Brachii
        • Brachialis
        • Brachioradialis

      • Exercises:
        • Triceps Exercise Videos
  • Anconeus
    • Origin:
      • Lateral epicondyle of the humerus proximally (smooth surface at lower extremity of posterior aspect of lateral epicondyle)
    • Insertion
      • Lateral surface of the olecranon process (and the superior part of the posterior ulna distally)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Deep brachial artery
      • Recurrent interosseous artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Radial nerve (C7-C8)
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Extends the elbow (weak)
        • Abducts (moves) ulna in pronation
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Helps stabilize the elbow joint
      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps stabilize the elbow joint
      • Related Muscles
        • Triceps Brachii

      • Antagonist:
        • Biceps Brachii
        • Brachialis
        • Brachioradialis

      • Exercises:
        • Triceps Exercise Videos
  • Supinator
    • Origin:
      • Deep fibers (horizontal)
        • Supinator crest and fossa of ulna
      • Superficial fibers (downwards)
        • Lateral epicondyle and lateral ligament of elbow and annular ligament
    • Insertion
      • Lateral proximal radial shaft (neck & shaft of radius, between anterior & posterior oblique lines)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Radial recurrent artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Deep branch of radial nerve (posterior interosseous nerve (C5, C6
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Assists forearm supination (only acts alone when elbow is fully extended)
      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates forearm pronation
      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles
        • Triceps Brachii

      • Antagonist:
        • Pronator Teres
        • Pronator Quadratus
      • Exercises
  • Pronator Teres
    • Origin:
      • Humeral head
        • Medial epicondyle, medial supracondylar ridge & medial intermuscular septum of the humerus
      • Ulnar Head
        • Medial border of the coronoid process of the ulnar

    • Insertion
      • Just posterior to most prominent part of lateral convexity of radius


    • Major Arteries:
      • Ulnar artery
      • Radial artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Medial nerve (C6-C7
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Pronates forearm
        • Assists during elbow flexion (weak)
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles
        • Pronator Quadratus

      • Antagonists:
        • Biceps Brachii
        • Supinator
      • Exercises
  • Pronator Quadratus
    • Origin:
      • Lower quarter of anteromedial shaft of ulna
    • Insertion
      • Lower quarter of anterolateral shaft of radius and some interosseous membrane


    • Major Artery:
      • Anterior interosseous artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Median (anterior interosseous) nerve (C8
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Pronation of the forearm
        • Aids in wrist extension (weak)
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles
        • Pronator Teres

      • Antagonist:
        • Supinator
        • Biceps Brachii
      • Exercises
  • Hand & Wrist
    • Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Flexor Pollicis Longus
    • Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Extensor Digitorum Communis
    • Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
  • Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Origin:
      • Common flexor origin of medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion
      • Bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals via groove in trapezium & slip to scaphoid


    • Major Arteries:
      • Ulnar artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Median nerve (from medial & lateral cords
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Wrist flexion & adduction
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises:
        • Forearms Exercises
  • Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin:
      • Humeral head: Common flexor origin of medial epicondyle.
      • Ulnar head: Aponeurosis from medial olecranon & upper three quarters subcutaneous border of ulna
    • Insertion
      • Pisiform, hook of hamate, base of 5th metacarpal via pisohamate & pisometacarpal ligaments


    • Major Artery:
      • Ulnar artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Ulnar nerve (C8, T1) (with some C7 by communication from lateral cord
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Flexes and adducts wrist.
        • Fixes pisiform during action of hypothenar muscles
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles
        • Flexor Carpi Radialis
        • Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
        • Flexor Pollicis Longus
        • Flexor Digitorum Profundus
        • Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
        • Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
        • Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
        • Extensor Digitorum Communis
        • Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
        • Extensor Pollicis Longus


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises:
        • Forearms exercises
  • Flexor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin:
      • Anterior surface of radius below anterior oblique line & adjacent interosseous membrane
    • Insertion
      • Base of distal phalanx of thumb


    • Major Arteries:
      • Anterior interosseus artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Anterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Flexes distal phalanx of thumb
        • Assists in wrist flexion (when thumb is fixed)
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises:
        • Forearms Exercises
  • Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • Origin:
      • Humeral head: Common flexor origin of medial epicondyle of the humerus, medial ligament of elbow.
      • Ulnar head: Medial border of coronoid process & fibrous arch
      • Radial head: Entire length of the anterior oblique line
    • Insertion
      • Tendons split to insert onto sides of middle phalanges of medial four fingers


    • Major Artery:
      • Ulnar artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Median nerve (C7-C8) (from medial & lateral cords)
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Flexes proximal interphalangeal joints
        • Secondarily flexes metacarpophalangeal joints & wrist
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises:
        • Forearms Exercises
  • Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • Origin:
      • Common extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion
      • Posterior base of 3rd metacarpal


    • Major Arteries:
      • Radial artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Extends & abducts the hand at the wrist
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
        • Flexor Carpi Radialis
      • Exercises:
        • Forearms Exercises
  • Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin:
      • Common extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion
      • Base of 5th metacarpal via groove by ulnar styloid


    • Major Arteries:


    • Neural Innervation:
      • Posterior interosseous nerve
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Extends & adducts the hand at the wrist
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises
  • Extensor Digitorum Communis
    • Origin:
      • Common extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion
      • External expansion to middle & distal phalanges by four tendons (tendons 3 & 4 usually fuse & little finger just receives a slip)


    Major Artery:

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Extends all joints of fingers
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises
  • Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin:
      • Middle 1/3 of posterior the ulna (below abductor pollicis longus) & adjacent interosseous membrane
    • Insertion
      • Base of distal phalanx of thumb via Lister's tubercle (dorsal tubercle of radius)


    • Major Artery:
      • Radial artery*

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7-C8
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Extends interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the thumb
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
      • Exercises
  • Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • Origin:
      • Lower third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus & lateral intermuscular septum
    • Insertion
      • Posterior base of 2nd metacarpal


    • Major Artery:
      • Radial artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Radial nerve (C6-C7
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Extends & abducts the hand at the wrist
      • Eccentric Functions:

      • Isometric Function:

      • Related Muscles


      • Antagonist:
        • Flexor Carpi Radialis
      • Exercises:
        • Forearms Exercises
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