Psych ch 2

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  1. Phenotypes
    observable characteristics
  2. genotype
    the complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics
  3. Chromosomes
    rodlike structures which store and transmit genetic information
  4. DNA
    chemical that chromosomes are made of
  5. gene
    segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome
  6. Mitosis
    a unique feature of DNA that it can duplicate it self
  7. gametes
    sex cells-- the sperm and ovum
  8. meiosis
    division process through which gametes are formed, which halves the number of chromosomes normally present in cell bodies
  9. zygote
    results from when the sperm and ovum unite at conception
  10. crossing over
    chromosomes next to each other break over at one or more points along their length and exchange segments so that genes from one are replaced by genes from another
  11. autosomes
    (meaning not sex chromosomes) n22 matching pairs of chromosomes, which geneticists number from longest (1) to shortest (22)
  12. fraternal or dizygotic twins
    the most common type of multiple birth, resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova
  13. monozygotic twins
    a zygote that has started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals
  14. allele
    gene that forms when two forms of a gene occur at the same place on the chromosomes one inherited from the mother and one from the father
  15. homozygous
    if the alleles from both parents are alike, and the child will display the inherited trait
  16. heterozygous
    when alleles are different, and the relationship between alleles determine the phenotype
  17. dominant recessive inheritance
    occurs when only one allele affects the child's characteristics
  18. carriers
    when a heterozygous individual passes the recessive allele on to their children
  19. modifier genes
    enhance or dilute the effects of other genes
  20. incomplete dominance
    a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two
  21. X-linked inheritance
    when a harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome, males are more likely to be affected because their sex chromosomes don't match
  22. genomic imprinting
    alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one pair member is activated regardless of its makeup
  23. mutation
    a sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA
  24. polygenic inheritance
    in which many genes affect the characteristic in question
  25. Down syndrome
    the most common chromosomal disorder
  26. Genetic counseling
    a communication process designed to help couples asses their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risk and family goals
  27. prenatal diagnostic methods
    medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth
  28. coparenting
    mutually supporting each others parenting behaviors
  29. Socio economic status
    • combines 3 vairables 1. years of education
    • 2. prestige of ones job an skill it requires
    • income
  30. subcultures
    groups of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture
  31. extended family households
    parent and child live with one or more adult relative
  32. collectivist societies
    people define themselves as part of a croup and stress group over individual goals
  33. individualistic societies
    people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
  34. Public policies
    laws and gov programs designed to improve current conditions
  35. behavioral genetics
    is a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to this diversity in human traits and abilities
  36. heritability estimates
    measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
  37. kinship studies
    compare characteristics of family members
  38. range of reaction
    each person's unique genetically determined response to the environment
  39. canalization
    the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
  40. genetic-environmental correlation
    our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed
  41. niche-picking
    the tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity
  42. epigenesis
    development resulting from ongoing bidirectional exchanges between heredity an all levels of the environment
Card Set:
Psych ch 2

genetic and environmental foundations
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