BIOL432 Appendicular Skeleton

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Geo
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107134
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BIOL432 Appendicular Skeleton
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2011-10-11 20:24:12
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BIOL432 Appendicular Skeleton
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BIOL432 Appendicular Skeleton
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  1. What are the two kinds of Fish Fins?
    Median and Ventral
  2. Are Median Fish Fins paired or unpaired?
    Unpaired
  3. What are the 3 kinds of Median Fish Fins?
    • Dorsal (1 or 2)
    • Caudal
    • Anal
  4. Are Ventral Fish Fins paired or unpaired?
    Paired
  5. What are the 2 kinds of Ventral Fish Fins?
    • Pectoral
    • Pelvic
  6. What are the 3 functions of the Fish Fins?
    • Control Yaw, Pitch, Roll
    • Propulsion
    • Steering
  7. Which fins (Caudal/Pectoral) are responsible for controlling Propulsion?
    Caudal
  8. Which fins (Caudal/Pectoral) are responsible for controlling Steering?
    Pectoral
  9. What are the 3 Origin Theories of Fish Fins?
    • Finfold Theory
    • Body Spine Theory
    • Gill Arch Theory
  10. What do Basal Pterygiophores do?
    They support Fin Rays by articulating to the Pectoral Girdle.
  11. What does Ceratotrichia do and which group of Fish is it present in?
    Makes up the bulk of the Fin and is present in Chondrichthyans.
  12. Define Lepidotrichia and which group of Fish do they belong to?
    Bony Fin Ray - Osteichthyans
  13. For Tetrapod Limb Development, list the 3 Morphological Terms and place them in order starting from Proximal to Distal.
    • Stylopodium - Proximal
    • Zeugopodium - Medial
    • Autopodium - Distal
  14. For Tetrapod Limb Development, the Axis develops through what?
    Postaxial Elements
  15. What two components make up the Pectoral Girdle?
    Dermal & Endochondral
  16. Describe the evolution of the Pectoral Girdle for Earliest Gnathostomes.
    • Joined to Head.
    • Dermal - Post-Temporals, Supracleithrum, Cleithrum, Clavicle
    • Endochondral - Scapulocoracoid
    • Glenoid Fossa faces posterolaterally.
  17. List the Trends in evolution from Fish to Mammal.
    • Reduction of Dermal Elements.
    • Increased size of Endochondral Elements.
    • Reduction in the Number of Bones.
    • Reorientation of the Glenoid Fossa.
    • Enlargement of Dorsolateral Relative to Ventral Components.
  18. Describe the Evolution of the Pectoral Girdle in Labyrinthodonts.
    • Loss of Skull Attachment.
    • 3 Dermals - Clavicle, Cleithrum, Interclavicle
    • 1 Endochondral - Scapulocoracoid
    • Glenoid Fossa faces Laterally.
  19. Describe the Evolution of Pectoral Girdle in Early Reptiles.
    • 3 Dermals - Clavicle, Interclavicle, Cleithrum
    • 2 Endochondrals - Scapula & Anterior Coracoid
    • Glenoid faces Laterally.
  20. Describe the Evolution of the Pectoral Girdle in Modern Lizards.
    • 2 Dermals - Clavicle, Interclavicle
    • 2 Endochondrals - Anterior Coracoid, Scapula
    • Glenoid Faces Laterally
  21. Describe the Evolution of the Pectoral Girdle of Archosaurs and Birds.
    • 2 Dermals - Clavicle, Interclavicle
    • 2 Endochondrals - Anterior Coracoid, Scapula
    • Birds - Furcula (Wishbone) - Fused CL and ICL
  22. Describe the Evolution of the Pectoral Girdle of MLRs.
    • 3 Dermals - Clavicle, Interclavicle, Cleithrum
    • 3 Endochondrals - Scapula, Anterior Coracoid, & Posterior Coracoid
    • Hint of acromion process on Scapula
    • Glenoid Fossa faces Ventrolaterally
  23. Describe the Evolution of the Pectoral Girdle of Mammal Monotremes.
    • 2 Dermals - Clavicle, Interclavicle
    • 3 Endochondrals - Scapula, Anterior Coracoid, Posterior Coracoid
    • Glenoid faces Ventrolaterally
  24. Describe the Evolution of Pectoral Girdle of Therian Mammals.
    • 1 Dermal - Clavicle
    • 2 Endochondrals - Scapula, Reduced Posterior Coracoid
    • Supraspinous Fossa, Scapular Spine, Well-developed Acromion Process
    • Gelnoid Faces Ventrally
  25. The Pelvic Girdle is primarily made up of which? Endochondral or Dermal?
    Endochondral
  26. Describe the Evolution of the Pelvic Girdle in Fishes.
    • Small Ventral Plates - Single Ossification
    • Not attached to vertebral column.
  27. Describe the Pelvic Girlde of the Primitive Tetrapods.
    • 3 Ossifications - Pubis, Ischium, Ilium
    • Attached to Vertebral Column by 1 Sacral Rib
    • Acetabulum in center, faces laterally
    • Ventral areas enlarged for muscle origins used in holding trunk away from substrate
  28. Describe the evolution of the Pelvic Girdle of the Living Reptiles
    • Attached to Vertebral Column by 2 Sacral Vertebrae
    • Acetabulum faces Laterally
    • Posteriorly expanded Ilium and Ischium
  29. Describe the evolution of the Pelvic Girdle of Bipedal Archosaurs and Birds.
    • Synsancrum in birds - fused to pelvic girdle
    • Acetabulum has dorsal rim, faces ventrolaterally
    • More expanded ilium & larger sacrum
    • Muscles shift from ventral to more dorsal
  30. Describe the evolution of the Pelvic Girdle of MLR's and Mammals.
    • Larger sacrum than other reptiles/amphibians
    • Acetabulum faces ventrolaterally
    • Muscles shift from ventral to more dorsal

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