BIOL 223 - Chapter 5-1

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BIOL 223 - Chapter 5-1
2011-10-07 22:01:14
anatomy integumentary system

Study Cards for Chapter 5 BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. What are the two main components of the integumentary system?
    • accessory structures
    • cutaneous membrane
  2. List the three classes of accessory structures of the integumentary system discussed in class.
    • hair
    • glands
    • tactile receptors
  3. List the eight functions of the integumentary system discussed in class.
    • thermoregulation
    • production of vitamin D
    • protect the body from the environment
    • production of melanin
    • excretion and absorption
    • keratin synthesis
    • blood storage
    • detection of cutaneous sensations
  4. List two ways the integumentary system can thermoregulate.
    • sweating
    • directing blood flow towards or away from the skin
  5. True or False: Your body needs vitamin D for the absorption of calcium.
  6. What gives skin, hair, and eyes color and tone?
  7. When the body is at rest, how much of the total blood supply is located in the dermal blood vessels?
    between 8 and 10%
  8. The bottom 2/3 of the hair structure is the:
    hair root
  9. The top 1/3 of the hair structure is known as the:
    hair shaft
  10. Where is the division between the hair root and the hair shaft?
    2/3 of the way up
  11. The hair follicle consists of everything:
    below the skin surface
  12. All hairs grow out of a:
  13. Hair is composed of how many concentric layers of tissue?
  14. List the three outer layers of hair tissue.
    • connective tissue sheath
    • outer root sheath
    • inner root sheath
  15. The outer most layer of hair tissue, comprised of dense connective tissue, is known as the:
    connective tissue sheath
  16. The second layer of hair tissue determines the texture of hair and is called the:
    outer root sheath
  17. If the outer root sheath is oval-shaped, the person likely has _______ hair.
  18. List the three inner layers of hair tissue.
    • cuticle
    • cortex
    • medulla
  19. The outermost layer of the hair proper whose cells overlap like shingles is known as the:
  20. The thickest layer of hair tissue is the:
  21. The innermost layer of hair tissue is known as the:
  22. The little piece of smooth muscle that attaches to the hair and allows it to stand up on end is called the:
    arrector pili muscle
  23. The lower, "fat" part of the hair follicle is known as the:
  24. True or False: Hair growth is a linear process.
    False - hair growth is a cyclical process
  25. List the three phases of hair growth.
    • anagen
    • catagen
    • telogen
  26. The growth phase of hair is known as:
  27. During anagen, your hair is:
    actively growing
  28. The regression phase of hair growth is known as:
  29. What occurs to the hair follicle during catagen?
    the bulb breaks down
  30. The resting phase of hair growth is known as:
  31. What does the follicle contain during the telogen phase?
    a club, or resting hair
  32. True or False: At this moment various hairs on your head can be found in each of the three states.
  33. True or False: As new hair grows in, old hair gets pushed out of the follicle and shed, as many as 75 to 100 per day.
  34. List the three major types of hair found in humans.
    • lanugo
    • terminal
    • velus
  35. Hair that is very fine, unpigmented, and general shed prior to birth is called:
    lanugo, or fetal hair
  36. Heavily pigmented hair found on the head, around the eye, and in pubic regions is known as:
    terminal hair
  37. Lighter, unpigmented hair found on the bodies of children are called:
    velus hairs
  38. During puberty velus hairs are replaced by:
    terminal hairs
  39. Hair color is determined by the presence of:
  40. List the two types of melanin discussed in class.
    • eumelanin
    • phaeomelanin
  41. Which of the types of melain contributes to red hair?
  42. Which type of hair has the most eumelanin, blonde or black?
  43. When you stop producing pigments your hair turns:
  44. What happens to the hair shaft when pigment production ceases?
    air replaces pigment in the shaft, making grey hair coarse
  45. Where will sebaceous glands be found?
    associated with hair follicles
  46. What do sebaceous glands secrete?
    an oily secretion called sebum
  47. List the three functions of the oily hair coating produced by sebaceous glands.
    • prevent dehydration
    • antibacterial
    • repels water
  48. What is the purpose of ceruminous glands?
    to secrete cerumen
  49. What is cerumen more commonly known as?
    ear wax
  50. Where is the body do you find ceruminous glands?
    the ears
  51. What are the two primary functions of the waxy secretion produced by the ceruminous glands?
    • protection
    • lubrication
  52. Where are the secretions of eccrine glands released?
    onto the epithelial cell surface
  53. Where do the secretions of apocrine glands release?
    into a hair follicle
  54. The secretion of eccrine glands that contains ammonia, urea, and other ions is commonly known as:
  55. Sweat that also contains proteins and lipids comes from which type of gland, eccrine or apocrine?
  56. The only tactile receptors in the epidermal layer are the:
    free nerve endings
  57. What do the free nerve endings detect?
    fine touch and pressure
  58. What does Merkel's disc detect?
    touch and pressure
  59. True or False: Free nerve endings detect touch and pressure better then Merkel's Discs.
    False - Merkel's Discs detect touch and pressure better than Free Nerve Endings
  60. What is the function of Meissner's corpuscle?
    to detect touch, pressure, and low frequency vibration
  61. What is the function of the Ruffini receptor?
    to detect continuous pressure
  62. What is the function of the root hair plexus?
    to detect distortion of the hair
  63. When you run your hands over the hairs of your arm, but not touching the skin, you are stimulating which tactile receptor?
    the root hair plexus
  64. What is the function of the Pacinian corpuscle?
    to detect deep pressure
  65. True or False: The density of tactile receptors in various locations depends of the sensitivity needs of the body.