BIOL 223 - Chapter 5-2

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christophertkennedy
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107167
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BIOL 223 - Chapter 5-2
Updated:
2011-10-07 22:51:59
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anatomy integumentary system
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Study Cards for Chapter 5 BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. List the two layers of the cutaneous membrane.
    • epidermis
    • dermis
  2. The epidermis is comprised of what type of tissue?
    stratified squamos epithelium
  3. The dermis is comprised of what two types of tissue?
    • areolar connective tissue
    • dense irregular connective tissue
  4. List the five major types of cell found in the epidermis.
    • melanocytes
    • langerhans cell
    • lamellar body
    • Merkel's disc
    • keratinocyte
  5. What is the function of melanocytes?
    to produce the pigment melanin
  6. What is the function of the langerhans cell?
    to detect pathogens entering through the skin
  7. What are lamellar bodies full of?
    lipids
  8. Merkel's discs function as:
    tactile receptors
  9. What type of epidermal cell is most prevalent?
    keratinocytes
  10. Squamos cells that are full of keratin make up what percent of the epidermal layer?
    90%
  11. List the five layers of the epidermis from bottom to top.
    • stratum basale
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum lucidum
    • stratum corneum
  12. The stratum basale is a _______ layer of cells.
    single
  13. The cells of the stratum basale are _______ in appearance.
    cuboidal
  14. Melanocytes will be located in which layer of the epidermis?
    stratum basale
  15. How often will cells undergo mitosis in the stratum basale?
    every 19 days
  16. True or False: When an epidermal cell undergoes mitosis, one daughter moves towards the stratum corneum while the other stays in the stratum basale to divide again.
    True
  17. What are tonofilaments?
    tiny microfilaments that weave together with the fibers of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes to aid in cell attachment
  18. Epidermal cells will contain which types of organelles?
    • nucleus
    • mitochondria
    • ribosomes
    • rough ER
    • golgi apparatus
  19. How long does it take for a cell to move from the stratum basale to the stratum corneum?
    15-30 days depending on the thickness of the epidermis
  20. Once a cell reaches the stratum corneum, how long until is gets sloughed off?
    14 days
  21. In which layer do cells undergo apoptosis, or programmed cell death?
    stratum granulosum
  22. How many layers of cells are in the stratum spinosum?
    8-10
  23. How many layers of cells are in the stratum granulosum?
    3-5
  24. How many layers of cells are found in the stratum lucidum?
    4-6
  25. How many layers of cells are found in the stratum corneum?
    usually 25-30 but can be as high as 50
  26. What accounts for the "spiny" appearance of the stratum spinosum?
    edges of the cells appear spiny where the desmosomes attach
  27. Living langerhans cells and lamellar bodies can be found in which layer of the epidermis?
    stratum spinosum
  28. Why do cells undergo apoptosis in the stratum granulosum?
    because they have moved to far away from the blood supply
  29. What is the function of keratohyalin?
    to convert tonofilaments from lower layers into keratin
  30. When lamellar bodies dump their lipids in order to lubricate and water-proof the cells they become:
    lamellar granules
  31. Which layer of the epidermis appears clear upon examination?
    stratum lucidum
  32. The stratum lucidum is only present in which two places on the human body?
    • palms of your hands
    • soles of your feet
  33. In which layer of epidermis are the cells dead and full of keratin?
    stratum corneum
  34. Thickening of the stratum corneum due to repetitive pressure is called a:
    callus
  35. What is the last layer of epidermis in which all of the cells are still living?
    stratum spinosum
  36. Which epidermal layer is not found all over the body?
    stratum lucidum
  37. Which layer of epidermis performs the vast majority of cell divisions?
    stratum basale
  38. What are the tw purposes of epidermal ridges discussed in class?
    • assist in grip and traction
    • increase surface area
  39. True or False: Epidermal ridges are unique to DNA expression.
    True
  40. List the five characterstics of thick skin discussed in class.
    • presence of stratum lucidum
    • other layers of epidermis are thicker
    • no hair/follicles/sebaceous glands
    • high density of tactile receptors
    • high density of sweat glands
  41. List the five characteristics of thin skin discussed in class.
    • absense of stratum lucidum
    • other layers of epidermis are thinner
    • contains hair/follicles/sebaceous glands
    • lower density of tactile receptors
    • lower density of sweat glands
  42. List the five functions of epidermal growth factor (EGF) discussed in class.
    • increase cell division in epidermal cells
    • increase gland secretion
    • increase cell repair
    • increase keratin synthesis
    • increase growth in hair
  43. Name the two layers of the dermis.
    • papillary layer
    • reticular layer
  44. What is the papillary layer of the dermis comprised of?
    areolar connective tissue
  45. What is the function of the dermal papilla?
    to increase the surface area of attachment to the epidermis
  46. The reticular layer dermis is comprised of what type of tissue?
    dense irregular collagenous connective tissue
  47. Inflammation of the dermis is known as:
    dermatitis
  48. Skin turgor is a measure for assessing what?
    hydration
  49. Tattoo ink is deposited in which layer of the cutaneous membrane?
    the dermis
  50. Blistering is the result of what physical phenomenon?
    the seperation of the dermis and epidermis causing fluid build-up
  51. In some parts of the body, the collagenous fibers of the reticular dermal layer run in a more regular orientation. These are known as:
    tension lines, or lines of cleavage
  52. Are the collagenous fibers in the abdomen oriented vertically or horizontally?
    horizontally
  53. Why should incisions be made parallel to the tension lines?
    • wounds are less likely to pull apart
    • less scar tissue formation
  54. Blood vessel networks in the papillary layer of the dermis are called the:
    papillary plexus
  55. The cutaneous plexus can be found in which layer of the cutaneous membrane?
    the reticular layer of the dermis
  56. The layer beneath the dermis is named the:
    hypodermis
  57. The hypodermis is comprised primarily of:
    adipose
  58. Where is a subcutaneous injection deposited?
    into the hypodermis
  59. Why would you inject something into the hypodermis?
    because you want it to disperse in a slow and controlled manner
  60. What is the primary function of the hypodermis?
    to provide a foundation for the skin

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