result of a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires
the long term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients.
What are the functions of segmentation and
peristalsis in the small intestine?
Segmentation- mixes chime with digestive juices and brings the chime into contact with the mucosa for absorption
Peristalsis- pushes intestinal contents along the intestine
What are brush border enzymes and what are their
Brush border enzymes, synthesised by absorptive
epithelial cells of the SI, function to digest carbohydrates, proteins and
Describe the digestion of carbohydrates that occurs in the small intestine.
Pancreatic amylase acts on glycogen and starches, then a brush border enzyme alpha-dextrinase continues enzymatic breakdown of carbohydrate by clipping off one glucose unit at a time.
Other brush border enzymes digest disaccharides to monosaccharides; Sucrase digests sucrose into glucose and fructose, Lactase digests lactose into glucose and galactose; Maltase digests maltose into 2 glucose molecules.
Why are bile salts needed for lipid digestion?
Bile salts emulsify large lipid globules into smaller
lipid globules which increases the surface area for pancreatic lipase to effectively digest triglycerides.
The region of the stomach that surrounds the superior opening of the stomach is known as the
This major duct carries a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions
This portion of the stomach connects to the duodenum
When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhemoglobin _______ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ________________.