Pharmacology

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Author:
amgomez
ID:
107177
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-10-07 23:27:41
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Infection System Dugs
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Description:
Therapeutic Uses
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  1. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the aminoglycoside drug gentamicin (Garamycin)?
    • Severe infections that some gram-positive cocci cause (in combination with another antibiotic)
    • Skin and eye infections (topical form)
  2. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the fluoroquinolone drug ciprofloxacin (Cipro)?
    • Bacterial infections, including severe urinary tract disorders
    • Prevents anthrax (following inhalation of anthrax spores)
  3. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the antimycobacterial drug isoniazid (INH)?
    • Active tuberculosis (TB)
    • Latent TB (positive TB skin test; disease not yet active)
  4. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the monobactam drug aztreonam (Azactam)?
    • Infections caused by gram-negative aerobic bacteria
    • Lower respiratory infections
    • Urinary tract infections
    • Abdominal and gynecological infections
  5. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the polyene antibiotic drug amphotericin B (Fungizone)?
    IV

    Severe systemic fungal infections that are likely to be fatal if not treated with amphotericin BTopical, oral suspension

    Candida infections of the skin and mucous membranesUrinary irrigation

    Candida infections of the bladder or lower urinary tract
  6. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the sulfonamide drug trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)?
    • Urinary tract infections
    • Pneumocystis pneumonia
    • Shigellosis enteritis (traveler's diarrhea)
    • Chronic bronchitis (acute phase)
    • Acute otitis media in children
  7. What is a therapeutic use for the carbapenem drug imipenem (Primaxin)?
    Serious infections
  8. What is a therapeutic use for the urinary tract antiseptic nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)?
    Treatment and prevention of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  9. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the antiparasitic drug metronidazole (Flagyl)?
    IV

    • Anaerobic bacterial infections, such as in colorectal, abdominal, and vaginal surgeries
    • Oral

    Pseudomembranous colitis, bacterial vaginal infections, intestinal and systemic amebiasis, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis
  10. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the cephalosporin drug cephalexin (Keflex)?
    Infections that gram-positive cocci cause
  11. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the penicillin drugs amoxicillin (Amoxil) and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin)?
    • Broad-spectrum infections caused by gram-positive cocci and bacilli, such as ear and throat infections and urinary tract infections
    • Gonorrhea caused by nonpenicillinase-producing bacteria (amoxicillin)
    • Clavulanic acid increases spectrum of disorders treated by amoxicillin and its ability to kill bacteria
  12. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the antiparasitic drug chloroquine (Aralen)?
    • Malaria: chloroquine-sensitive malaria caused by all four forms of the parasite; combination with primaquine for malaria caused by two of the parasites; prophylaxis for malaria in regions where chloroquine resistance is not widespread
    • Amebiasis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (second-line therapy)
  13. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the antimycobacterial drug rifampin (Rifadin)?
    • Adjunct therapy to treat tuberculosis (TB)
    • Preventive therapy for carriers of Neisseria meningitidis (cause of meningococcal meningitis)
    • May treat leprosy
    • Prevents Haemophilus influenzae infection
  14. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the antibacterial drug vancomycin (Vancocin)?
    • Severe infections
    • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections
    • Infections in patients who have an allergy to penicillin
  15. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the antibacterial drug tetracycline (Sumycin)?
    • Chlamydia infections
    • Mycoplasmal infections
    • Rickettsial infections (such as typhus)
    • Syphilis and gram-negative infections in patients who have penicillin allergy
    • Gram-positive infections (tetanus)
    • Cholera
    • Anthrax
    • Acne vulgaris (topical and oral forms)
  16. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the macrolide drug erythromycin (E-Mycin)?
    • Legionnaires' disease
    • Whooping cough
    • Acute diphtheria
    • Diphtheria carriers
    • Some chlamydia infections
    • Some pneumonias
    • Common infections for patients who have a penicillin allergy
    • Ophthalmic ointment prevents eye infections in neonates
  17. What is a therapeutic use for the azole drug ketoconazole (Nizoral)?
    Severe systemic fungal infections (as a less toxic alternative to amphotericin B)
  18. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the antiviral drug acyclovir (Zovirax)?
    IV

    Severe viral infections in patients who are immunocompromised

    Oral

    Severe viral infections in patients who have normal immune systems

    Topical

    Viral infections such as cold sores, initial genital herpes outbreaks, and mild viral skin infections for patients who are immunocompromised

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