Pharmacology

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Author:
amgomez
ID:
107179
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-10-07 23:46:56
Tags:
Infection System Drugs
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Description:
Common Side Effects
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  1. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the aminoglycoside drug Gentamicin (Garamycin)?
    • Tinnitus, headache, and vertigo (elevated trough levels); can cause ototoxicity
    • Nephrotoxicity (polyuria, dilute urine, protein and casts in urine, elevated BUN, creatinine)
  2. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the antimycobacterial drug isoniazid (INH)?
    • Nausea, vomiting, constipation
    • Liver damage, including hepatitis, liver failure (especially common in older adults and alcoholics)
    • Peripheral neuropathy: numbness, tingling, pain in the hands or feet (especially common in patients who abuse alcohol or have diabetes mellitus)
    • Dizziness, ataxia, seizures, psychotic symptoms
  3. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the cephalosporin drug cephalexin (Keflex)?
    • Diarrhea, nausea
    • Pseudomembranous colitis (rare; may be from a suprainfection)
    • Possible cross-allergy to penicillin allergy (especially for patients who have a severe penicillin allergy)
    • Risk for hemorrhage with cefotetan (Cefotan) only
    • Thrombophlebitis (cephalosporins infused via IV only)
    • Cefotetan (Cefotan): disulfiram-like (Antabuse) reaction if patient takes with alcohol
  4. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the penicillin drugs amoxicillin (Amoxil) and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin)?
    • Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
    • Rarely may cause pseudomembranous colitis due to suprainfection (more frequent with other penicillins than amoxicillin)
    • Suprainfection with Candida albicans
    • Allergic reaction: rash, hives, wheezing and difficulty breathing
  5. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the carbapenem drug imipenem (Primaxin)?
    • Nausea, vomiting (if IV infusion is too rapid)
    • Thrombophlebitis at IV site
    • Possible cross-sensitivity with other antibiotics with beta lactam ring (penicillins, cephalosporins)
    • Suprainfection
  6. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the sulfonamide drug trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)?
    • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia
    • Allergic skin reactions
    • Blood cell deficiencies (thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia)
    • Suprainfections (pseudomembranous colitis or Candida albicans)
    • Severe rash, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  7. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the monobactam drug aztreonam (Azactam)?
    • Thrombophlebitis, inflammation at IV site
    • Suprainfection with Candida albicans
  8. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the macrolide drug erythromycin (E-Mycin)?
    • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea
    • Ventricular dysrhythmias (increase in QT on ECG)
    • Ototoxicity: hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus (able to reverse when treatment ends)
    • Suprainfection (pseudomembranous colitis, candidiasis)
  9. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the azole drug ketoconazole (Nizoral)?
    • Liver toxicity
    • Nausea, vomiting
    • Constipation or diarrhea
    • Drowsiness, dizziness (decreases during treatment)
    • Temporary decreased sexual hormone synthesis may cause gynecomastia, decreased libido, and low sperm counts or menstrual irregularities
  10. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the polyene antibiotic drug amphotericin B (Fungizone)?
    • Infusion reaction (occurs 1 to 2 hr after IV infusion begins and subsides within 4 hr): chills, fever, tachycardia, hypotension, headache, nausea; decreases during the course of therapy (several weeks)
    • Renal toxicity (temporary or permanent kidney damage) that causes hypokalemia
    • RBC suppression (anemia)
  11. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the antiparasitic drug chloroquine (Aralen)?
    • Problems seeing or reading, blurred vision, photophobia
    • Nausea, diarrhea
  12. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the fluoroquinolone drug ciprofloxacin (Cipro)?
    • Mild CNS symptoms (dizziness, headache; confusion in older adults)
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Achilles tendon rupture (rare), especially in children, older adults, and patients taking glucocorticoids
    • Photosensitivity (sunburn-like reaction) even with indirect sun exposure; may occur despite use of sunscreen
  13. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the antiparasitic drug metronidazole (Flagyl)?
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Mild to moderate includes headache, vertigo, or ataxia; severe includes seizures or peripheral neuropathy
    • Darkening of urine (harmless effect)
    • Suprainfection with Candida albicans
  14. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the antibacterial drug vancomycin (Vancocin)?
    • Hypotension and flushing of the face and trunk (red-person syndrome) occur with rapid IV infusion.
    • Hearing loss due to ototoxicity (usually reversible, but not always)
    • Kidney damage secondary to nephrotoxicity
    • Thrombophlebitis at IV site and tissue damage with IV infiltration
  15. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the antibacterial drug tetracycline (Sumycin)?
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
    • Permanently discolors deciduous teeth of fetus (after fourth month of gestation) and young children
    • Liver toxicity (especially in large doses or to pregnant or postpartum women)
    • Suprainfections (pseudomembranous colitis, Candida albicans)
    • Photosensitivity (severe sunburn-type reaction with sun exposure)
  16. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the urinary tract antiseptic nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)?
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Respiratory symptoms
    • Acute: chills, fever, cough, lasts 2 to 4 days
    • Subacute: cough, shortness of breath, lasts weeks to months and may be permanent
    • Permanent peripheral neuropathy (common in patients who have impaired renal function)
    • Blood cell dysfunction (anemia, including macrocytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia)
    • Tooth staining caused by contact with liquid suspension
    • Brownish urine (harmless)
  17. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the antimycobacterial drug rifampin (Rifadin)?
    • Liver toxicity (hepatitis)
    • Red-orange color of body fluids (urine, saliva, tears, sweat)
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping abdominal pain
  18. What are some of the side and/or adverse effects of the antiviral drug acyclovir (Zovirax)?
    Topical

    Burning, itching at application site (usually temporary)

    Oral

    • Nausea and vomiting, diarrhea
    • Headache
    • Vertigo

    IV

    • Renal toxicity
    • CNS toxicity (rare; patients who have renal impairment at most risk) - restlessness, tremors, psychosis, seizures
    • Thrombophlebitis at IV site;
    • IV infiltration causes tissue damage.

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