Cytokines

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Author:
blakegoodman08
ID:
107184
Filename:
Cytokines
Updated:
2011-10-07 23:58:55
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Ross University Immunology cytokine microbiology interleukin semester3 mini1 s3m1 s3 Adebiyi
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Cytokines, including interleukins, interferons, and tumor necrosis factor; from Adebiyi's "Cytokines Overview"
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  1. Inhibits viral replication, suppresses cell proliferation
    Also used in Tx of chronic hepatitis and Kaposi's sarcoma
    IFN-α
  2. Inhibits viral protein synthesis and replication
    Stimulates B Cell expression of MHC class 1
    Activates NK Cells
    Pyretic
    Used for Tx of multiple sclerosis
    IFN-β
  3. Activates macrophages/TH1
    Inhibits TH2
    Increases MHC class 1 and 2
    Increases antigen presentation
    Pyretic
    Used for Tx of chronic granulomatous disease
    IFN-γ
  4. What is the general activity of interferons?
    Anti-viral activity
  5. What cells produce IFN-α, -β, and -γ?
    • IFN-α: most cells
    • IFN-β: leukocytes and fibroblasts
    • IFN-γ: TH1 cells after IL-2 or antigen stimulation; some from NK cells, CD8+, and phagocytes
  6. A chemokine that:
    Attracts and activates eosinophils
    Increases eosinophil migration
    Eotaxin
  7. A chemokine that:
    Chemotactic and activator for monocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells, eosinophils, basophils, and T cells
    RANTES, aka CCL5 (binds to CCR5)
  8. Secreted by activated lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells
    Upregulates IL-1 & PG-E2 synthesis in macrophages
    Induces acute phase protein production in liver
    Causes cell death in many types of cells
    TNF-α
  9. Produced by activated APCs
    Pyrogenic
    Activates TH and NK cells
    Signals B-cell proliferation
    Increased ICAM exp on vascular endothelium
    Chemotactic for macrophages and neutrophils
    • IL-1
    • α = membrane, β = secreted
  10. Produced by activated TH1 cells, which themselves express a receptor to this cytokine
    Promotes growth of all T cells
    IL-2
  11. Produced by TH1 and 2 cells
    Stimulates hematopoiesis in bone marrow
    Pro-inflammatory, stimulates mast cells
    IL-3
  12. Produced by TH2 cells
    Activates and promotes proliferation and differentiation of B cells
    Causes class switching to IgG and IgE
    Induces TH2 proliferation
    Up-regulates MHC2 expression in macrophages
    IL-4
  13. Synergistic with IL-4, producing IgE
    Also enhances IgA class switching
    Stimulates production and activation of eosinophils
    IL-5
  14. Serves as a co-factor for IL-1
    Secreted by macrophages, stromal cells from basement membrane, and TH cells
    Promotes proliferation and terminal differentiation of B cells
    Stimulates antibody secretion and production of acute-phase reactants
    Promotes differentiation of myeloid stem cells
    IL-6
  15. Secreted by thymocytes and basement membrane stroma
    Regulates B, T cell development and maturation
    Induces cytokines IL-1 and IL-6
    IL-7
  16. Secreted by macrophages
    Major chemokine for neutrophils
    Also chemokine for T-cells and basophils
    Promotes angiogenesis
    IL-8
  17. Pleiotropic cytokine produced by TH2 cells
    Stimulates release of IL-2, 4, 6, and 11
    Stimulates cytotoxic effect of CTLs and NK cells
    IL-9
  18. Secreted by regulatory T cells
    Inhibits activated T cells and proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages and monocytes
    Activates TH2, inhibits TH1
    IL-10
  19. Produced by stromal cells
    Induces hematopoiesis
    Induces acute phase protein synthesis in hepatocytes
    IL-11
  20. Secreted by activated APCs (B cells and macrophages)
    Promotes TH0 to TH1 differentiation
    Activates NK cells and enhances their proliferation
    Costimulates TH1 to produce IL-2R and secrete IL-2 and IFN-γ
    IL-12
  21. Produced by TH2 cells
    Promotes IgE production
    Possesses anti-inflammatory properties
    IL-13
  22. Hyperproduction promotes B-cell development in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
    IL-14
  23. Bacterial septic shock is due to overproduction of what by what?
    • IL-1 adn TNF-α by macrophages
    • Presentation includes hypotension, fever, diarrhea, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
  24. What causes toxic shock syndrome?
    Superantigens overstimulate polyclonal T-cell production of IL-1 and TNF-α
  25. Pathway of tuberculoid leprosy
    IL-12 => TH1 => IL-2, TNF-β, IFN-γ => cell-mediated immunity
  26. Pathway of lepromatous leprosy
    IL-4 => TH2 => IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 => antibody production
  27. Interleukins with hematopoietic effects
    3, 6, 7, 11

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