Pharmacology

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Author:
amgomez
ID:
107190
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-10-08 00:16:22
Tags:
Infection System Drugs
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Description:
Precautions
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  1. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the antimycobacterial drug rifampin (Rifadin)?
    • History of liver disease
    • History of alcoholism
    • Concurrent use of other hepatotoxic drugs
  2. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the urinary tract antiseptic nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)?
    • Asthma or other respiratory disorders
    • Liver disorders
    • Kidney disorder that does not affect creatinine clearance
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  3. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the antimycobacterial drug isoniazid (INH)?
    • Chronic liver disease, including hepatitis
    • HIV infection
    • Adult older than 50
    • Seizure disorder
    • Renal disorders
    • Alcoholism
  4. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the polyene antibiotic drug amphotericin B (Fungizone)?
    • Bone marrow depression
    • Anemia
    • Renal insufficiency
  5. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the antiparasitic drug metronidazole (Flagyl)?
    • Existing candida infection
    • Heart failure
    • Liver or renal failure
    • Seizure disorders
  6. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the sulfonamide drug trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)?
    • Decreased kidney or liver function
    • Hypersensitivity to sulfites used as preservatives (wine, foods), other drugs related to sulfonamides (acetazolamide, thiazide diuretics, tolbutamide)
    • Suppressed bone marrow
    • Patient at risk for megaloblastic anemia (alcoholic, pregnant woman, patient who is debilitated)
  7. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the monobactam drug aztreonam (Azactam)?
    • History of allergy to penicillins or cephalosporins (although aztreonam has little cross-sensitivity to these antibiotics)
    • Decreased liver or renal function
    • Older adult
  8. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the macrolide drug erythromycin (E-Mycin)?
    • Gastrointestinal disorders
    • Liver disorders
    • Seizure disorders
  9. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the antiparasitic drug chloroquine (Aralen)?
    • Liver disease
    • Alcoholism
    • Young child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (causes hemolytic anemia)
  10. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the cephalosporin drug cephalexin (Keflex)?
    • Allergy to penicillin (possible cross sensitivity)
    • Renal failure
    • Liver or gastrointestinal disease
  11. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the penicillin drugs amoxicillin (Amoxil) and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin)?
    • Allergies, hay fever, or asthma
    • Allergy to cephalosporins or carbapenem antibiotics
    • Colitis or diarrhea
    • Liver disease (amoxicillin)
    • Renal failure or dialysis (amoxicillin)
    • Diabetes mellitus
  12. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the fluoroquinolone drug ciprofloxacin (Cipro)?
    • Serious CNS disorders (seizure disorder)
    • Gastrointestinal disorders
    • Renal impairment
    • Warfarin (Coumadin) therapy
  13. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the carbapenem drug imipenem (Primaxin)?
    • Allergy to cephalosporins
    • Seizures and other CNS disorders
    • Renal impairment
  14. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the antibacterial drug tetracycline (Sumycin)?
    • Allergies, such as hay fever
    • History of liver or kidney disorder
    • Myasthenia gravis
  15. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the azole drug ketoconazole (Nizoral)?
    • Existing liver disease
    • Allergy to other azole antifungals
    • Alcoholism
    • HIV infection
    • Older adults
    • Child younger than 2
  16. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the aminoglycoside drug Gentamicin (Garamycin)?
    • Damage to acoustic nerve with hearing loss
    • Presence of tinnitus or vertigo
    • Renal disorders
    • Chronic neuromuscular disorders
    • Dehydration
    • Hypocalcemia
  17. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the antibacterial drug vancomycin (Vancocin)?
    • Renal insufficiency (reduce dosage)
    • Impaired hearing
    • Colitis
  18. What factors increase the risk of side and adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient who is taking the antiviral drug acyclovir (Zovirax)?
    • Renal insufficiency
    • Neurologic disorders
    • Dehydration

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