Pharmacology

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Author:
amgomez
ID:
107191
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-10-08 00:24:07
Tags:
Infection System Drugs
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Description:
Food & Drug Interactions
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  1. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the polyene antibiotic drug amphotericin B (Fungizone)?
    • Nephrotoxicity increased with the use of nephrotoxic chemotherapy drugs, aminoglycosides, cyclosporine, furosemide, and vancomycin.
    • Corticosteroids increase the risk for hypokalemia.
    • Digitalis toxicity is increased with the presence of hypokalemia.
  2. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the antimycobacterial drug isoniazid (INH)?
    • Alcohol increases the risk for toxicity and adverse reactions.
    • Disulfiram (Antabuse) may cause psychosis or ataxia.
    • Isoniazid (INH) with phenytoin (Dilantin) may cause phenytoin toxicity.
    • Antacids containing aluminum (Amphojel, Maalox, Mylanta) decrease absorption.
    • Two other tuberculosis drugs, ethionamide (Trecator) and cycloserine (Seromycin), may increase CNS adverse symptoms.
  3. What drugs or food has the potential to interact with the cephalosporin drug cephalexin (Keflex)?
    Probenecid causes prolonged effect of most cephalosporins.
  4. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the antiparasitic drug metronidazole (Flagyl)?
    • Alcohol causes a disulfiram (Antabuse)-type reaction.
    • Citalopram (Celexa), ritonavir (Norvir), IV nitroglycerin, sulfamethoxazole, or trimethoprim may also cause disulfiram-type reactions.
    • Phenobarbital decreases blood levels.
    • Metronidazole increases lithium levels.
    • Fluorouracil and azathioprine may cause temporary neutropenia and increase risk for infection.
    • Disulfiram may cause a psychotic reaction.
    • Multiple solution incompatibilities with IV form.
  5. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the antibacterial drug tetracycline (Sumycin)?
    • Antidiarrheals containing kaolin decrease absorption.
    • Supplements and antacids containing calcium, magnesium, or aluminum decrease absorption.
    • Dairy products and supplements with iron or zinc decrease absorption.
    • Tetracycline decreases effectiveness of oral contraceptives
  6. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the antiparasitic drug chloroquine (Aralen)?
    • Antacids and laxatives that contain magnesium or aluminum decrease absorption.
    • Lemon juice decreases effectiveness.
  7. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the azole drug ketoconazole (Nizoral)?
    • Antacids, proton pump inhibitors, and H2 antagonists greatly decrease absorption; take ketoconazole at least 2 hr before taking any of these drugs.
    • Rifampin (Rifadin) decreases blood levels.
    • Echinacea increases the risk for liver toxicity.
  8. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the antibacterial drug vancomycin (Vancocin)?
    • Metformin may cause and increase the risk for lactic acidosis.
    • Drugs that are toxic to hearing or kidney increase the risk for ototoxicity or nephrotoxicity.
    • Vancomycin is incompatible in a solution with multiple other IV drugs.
  9. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the monobactam drug aztreonam (Azactam)?
    • Incompatible in IV solution with multiple other drugs.
    • Probenecid may increase blood levels of aztreonam.
    • Some other antibiotics (imipenem, cefoxitin) may decrease the effectiveness of aztreonam.
  10. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the penicillin drugs amoxicillin (Amoxil) and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin)?
    • Probenecid increases penicillin blood levels.
    • Tetracyclines may decrease therapeutic effects.
  11. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the urinary tract antiseptic nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)?
    • Antacids decrease absorption.
    • Probenecid increases the chance of toxicity.
  12. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the aminoglycoside drug Gentamicin (Garamycin)?
    • Vancomycin (Vanocin), ethacrynic acid (Edecrin), furosemide (Lasix), and other ototoxic drugs increase the risk for ototoxicity.
    • Amphotericin B (Fungizone), NSAIDS or other nephrotoxic drugs increase the risk for nephrotoxicity.
    • Cephalosporins, vancomycin, and penicillin enhance the bactericidal effect of gentamicin.
    • Penicillin, cephalosporins, heparin shouldn't be mixed in the same IV solution with gentamicin.
    • Prolonged respiratory paralysis can occur when used in combination with neuromuscular blockers (pancuronium, succinylcholine [Anectine]).
  13. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the antimycobacterial drug rifampin (Rifadin)?
    • Decreases blood levels of oral contraceptives, warfarin (Coumadin), and several HIV drugs (protease inhibitors).
    • Isoniazid and pyrazinamide increase risk for liver toxicity.
  14. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the fluoroquinolone drug ciprofloxacin (Cipro)?
    • Antacids, iron preparations, calcium (including dairy products), and sucralfate (Carafate) decrease oral absorption.
    • Increases theophylline levels and the risk for CNS symptoms.
    • Increases warfarin (Coumadin) levels.
  15. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the sulfonamide drug trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)?
    • Alcohol with the drug may cause a disulfiram (Antabuse)-type reaction.
    • May increase effects of warfarin, phenytoin, tolbutamide (and other sulfonylurea oral antidiabetic drugs).
    • Taken with methotrexate, may cause increased immunosuppression.
    • Reduces effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
  16. What drugs or food has the potential to interact with the carbapenem drug imipenem (Primaxin)?
    Monobactam, penicillin, and cephalosporin antibiotics may decrease the effects of imipenem.
  17. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the macrolide drug erythromycin (E-Mycin)?
    • Decreases blood levels of chloramphenicol and clindamycin antibiotics.
    • Increases blood levels of multiple drugs, including digoxin, warfarin, and theophylline.
    • Drinking grapefruit juice may increase adverse effects.
    • Drugs that inhibit the enzyme CYP3A4 increase erythromycin levels (verapamil, azole antifungals, protease inhibitors for HIV, diltiazem)
  18. What drugs or food have the potential to interact with the antiviral drug acyclovir (Zovirax)?
    • Probenecid increases blood levels.
    • Zidovudine increases CNS effects.
    • Drugs that are nephrotoxic increase risk for renal toxicity

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