Pharmacology

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Author:
amgomez
ID:
107203
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-10-08 01:02:14
Tags:
Pain Inflammation Drugs Patient Instructions
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Patient Instructions
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  1. What important instructions should the health care professional give the patient who is taking the NSAID (COX-2 inhibitor) celecoxib (Celebrex)?
    • Take with food, milk, or 8 oz of water to minimize gastrointestinal effects.
    • Avoid alcohol.
    • Report persistent gastric irritation and signs of bleeding.
    • Report changes in urine output, weight gain, or signs of fluid retention, such as edema or bloating.
    • Report chest pain or heaviness, shortness of breath, sudden and severe headache, numbness, weakness, visual disturbances, or confusion.
    • Take low-dose aspirin once daily to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke.
  2. What important instructions should the health care professional give the patient who is taking the glucocorticoid drug prednisone (Deltasone)?
    • Take the drug on an alternate-day schedule.
    • Report increased stress because higher dosages are required at such times.
    • Taper the dose before discontinuing it.
    • Report polyphagia, polydipsia, and polyuria.
    • Report muscle pain or weakness.
    • Avoid taking NSAIDs.
    • Take the drug with food or meals.
    • Report indigestion or bloody vomitus as well as black, tarry stools.
    • Report signs of infection, such as a sore throat.
    • Report weight gain or edema (hypernatremia).
    • Report weakness (hypokalemia).
    • Understand that long-term therapy may cause some changes in fat distribution throughout the body.
    • Take the drug on alternate days for long-term therapy.
    • Perform weight-bearing exercise daily.
    • Consume adequate calcium and vitamin D.
    • Report blurred vision and loss of color acuity.
    • Minimize exposure of eyes to sunlight.
    • Obtain periodic eye examinations.
  3. What important instructions should the health care professional give the patient who is taking the NSAIDs (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors) aspirin/acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)?
    • Take with food, milk, or 8 oz of water to minimize gastrointestinal effects.
    • Avoid alcohol.
    • Report persistent gastric irritation and signs of bleeding.
    • Report any unusual or prolonged bleeding.
    • Report changes in urine output, weight gain, or signs of fluid retention, such as edema or bloating.
    • Report ringing or buzzing in the ears, sweating, headache, and dizziness.
    • Stop taking aspirin if these symptoms develop.
    • Do not give aspirin or NSAIDs to a child or adolescent younger than 19 who has a viral infection, particularly chickenpox and influenza; use acetaminophen instead.
    • Report chest pain or heaviness, shortness of breath, sudden and severe headache, numbness, weakness, visual disturbances, or confusion.
    • Take low-dose aspirin once daily to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke if prescribed.
  4. What important instructions should the health care professional give the patient who is taking the drug acetaminophen (Tylenol)?
    • Understand that the drug is available in many combination products as well as many formulations; read labels carefully to avoid overdose.
    • Do not exceed 3 g a day for an adult patient.
    • Report any abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, sweating, or diarrhea immediately.
    • Check blood pressure regularly.
  5. What important instructions should the health care professional give the patient who is taking the opioid agonist-antagonist drugs butorphanol (Stadol) and pentazocine (Talwin)?
    • Use the drug only when needed and short-term.
    • Do not take prior to driving or activities requiring mental alertness.
    • Sit or lie down if feeling lightheaded.
    • Change positions gradually.
    • Lie down when feeling nauseated.
    • Do not use for anginal pain.
    • Do not take opioids while taking butorphanol.
  6. What important instructions should the health care professional give the patient who is taking the opioid agonist drugs morphine and meperidine (Demerol)?
    • Take the drug only when needed and short-term.
    • Do not take prior to driving or activities requiring mental alertness.
    • Sit or lie down if feeling lightheaded.
    • Change positions gradually.
    • Increase fluid and fiber intake.
    • Increase activity/exercise.
    • Take the drug with food or milk (oral forms).
    • Sit or lie down if feeling lightheaded.
    • Rise slowly from a reclining or sitting position.
    • Report any inability to urinate or difficulty urinating.
    • Cough regularly to clear secretions from the throat and chest.
    • Take the drug only when needed and short-term.
  7. What important instructions should the health care professional give the patient who is taking the uricosuric drug allopurinol (Zyloprim)?
    • Report fever, rash, abdominal pain, swelling, or low urine output immediately, and stop taking the drug.
    • Take the drug with food.
    • Avoid driving or activities requiring mental alertness if drowsy.
    • Try over-the-counter analgesics as needed to relieve headache.
    • Report bleeding, easy bruising, or sore throat.
    • Suck on hard candy or chew gum to minimize unusual taste sensations.
    • Report blurred vision and/or loss of color acuity.
    • Minimize exposure of eyes to sunlight.
    • Obtain periodic eye examinations.
  8. What important instructions should the health care professional give the patient who is taking the centrally acting nonopioid drug tramadol (Ultram)?
    • Do not take prior to driving or activities requiring mental alertness.
    • Sit or lie down if feeling lightheaded.
    • Change positions gradually.
    • Increase fluid and fiber intake.
    • Take the drug with food or milk.
    • Lie down when feeling nauseated.
    • Take the drug only when needed and short-term.
    • Report urinary retention.

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