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What are the functions of the muscular system?
- 1. movement
- 2. posture
- 3. heat production
- 4. breathing
Define neuromuscular junction?
site where moter neuron and muscle fibers meet
List the parts of neuromuscular junction in order of impulse transmission? Describe each of them and which release Ach and which contains Ach?
- 1. axon terminal- releases Ach
- 2. synaptic cleft- space
- 3. motor endplate (MEP)- modified sarcolemma, contains Ach
What is the role of acetylcholinesterase?
Ach degrading enyme
What is the functional subunit of the muscular system?
What are the filament subunits of sarcomere? The protein that compose each filament and the locations of each unit?
- thin filament (actin) - attached to the z-disc
- thick filament (myosin) - central location
Eplain the sliding filament theory?
actin and myosin bind-> thin filament moves in over thick filament-> sarcomere shortens
What is required for relaxation?
Define motor unit?
motor neuron and muscle fibers it stimulates
Define all-or-none law?
motor neuron AP-> max contraction of all fibers in the motor unit
increased motor unit and increased contraction force
rapid response of a muscle fiber to a threshold stimulus
sustained contraction due to rapid stimulation and summation of twitches
Define refractory period and waht is it's length?
- period in which a threshold stimulus produses no response
- length: short
Describe endurance exercise and identify the tissue adaptation that overwhelmingly accounts for it?
- aerobic metabolism with out interruption for long periods of time
- increased physical fitness
Which skeletal muscles move the vertebral column?
- 1. sternocleidomastoid (flexes)
- 2. abdominals (fles)- rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique
which sleletal muscles move the upper extremity at shoulder?
- 1. pectoralis major (flexes)
- 2. deltoid (abducts)
- 3. latissimus dorsi (extends)
Which skeletal muscles moves the upper extremity ate the elbow?
- 1. triceps (extends)
- 2. biceps (flexes)
Which skeletal muscle moves the lower extremity ate hip and knee?
- 1. sartorius (flexes at hip + knee)
- 2. quads (extend at knee)
- 3. gluts (extend at hip)
- 4. hamstrings (extend at hip, flexes at knee)
Define physical fitness and identify the tissue adaptation that overwhelmingly accounts for it?
- ability to do work
- related to changes in the skeletal muscles (not heart of lungs) that allow it to use oxygen more effeciently.