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2011-10-08 05:02:54
Central Peripheral Nervous System

The Central & Peripheral Nervous System
Show Answers:

  1. Define white matter?
    myelinated fibers
  2. Define gray matter?
    unmyelinated fibers and neuron cell bodies
  3. Define tract?
    fiber bundle CNS
  4. Define nerve and 2 types?
    • fiber bundler PNS
    • 1. cranial
    • 2. spinal
  5. Define meninges and list in order from superficial to deep?
    • covering of CNS, both brain and spinal cord
    • a. dura mater
    • b. arachnoid
    • c. pia mater- rich in minute blood vessels
  6. What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?
    cushions and nourishes CNS
  7. Define ventricle?
    CSF filled spaces
  8. Explain why brain damage occus rapidly with brief interruption of arterial blood supply?
    • No flow for 4 min. -> brain damage d/t
    • - brain doesn't store oxygen or glucose
    • - can't us fatty acids for E
  9. Define stroke and provide alternate ames?
    • tissue death d/t clotting or bleeding
    • aka: cerebrovascular accident and brain attack
  10. What is the function of the blood brain barrier? And the structured that compose it?
    • selective exchange between blood and brain tissue
    • composed of: vessell wall and pia mater
  11. What are the spinal cord function?
    impulse conduction and spinal reflexes
  12. Define relflex?
    automatic fast response to change
  13. List the anatomical parts of the spinal reflexes in order?
    • 1. receptor
    • 2. sensory neuron
    • 3. control center
    • 4. motor neuron
    • 5. effector
  14. What are the functions of the cerebellum?
    cordination, equilibrium, posture
  15. What is the function of the thalamus?
    relays sensory info to cortex
  16. What is the function of the hypothalamus?
    • Produces ADH and oxytocin
    • Regulates:
    • autotomic nervous system
    • endocrine system
    • temperature
    • feeding
    • thirst sleep
  17. Which major division of the brain contains the medulla?
    brain stem
  18. What is the significance of the decussation pyramids?
    motor fibers cross
  19. What is the vital reflex centers of the medulla oblongata? And what does each regulate?
    • 1. cardiac (BP)
    • 2. vasomotor (BP)
    • 3. breathing
  20. Define cortex?
    superficial gray
  21. What are the 3 types of functional areas of the cortex?
    • a. sensory
    • b. motoer
    • c. association
  22. What is the function of sensory?
    perception of pain, touch, pressure, and temperature
  23. What is the function of motor?
    control of skeletal muscles
  24. What is the function of association?
    higher functions
  25. What is the function of basal nuclei?
    subconscious control of large proximal muscles groups
  26. Define electroencephalogram?
    graph of electrical activity of the brain (waves)
  27. Based on the ANS's other name (visceral efferent division of the PNS), what is the general type of structure served, functoins, and general location?
    • structure- organ
    • function- motor
    • general location- PNS
  28. What are the 3 effectors served by the ANS?
    • a. smooth muscle
    • b. cardiac muscle
    • c. glands
  29. Define dual innervasion and identify it's purpose?
    sympathetic and parasympathetic...oppose each other at an organ
  30. What is the distal receptor on the effector organs in the parasympathetic nervous system?
    • Cholinergic, bind Ach
    • function: resource conservation, inhibits organs that use energy
  31. What is the distal receptor of the organs in sympathetic nervous system?
    • adrenergic, bind norepinephrine
    • function: fight-or-flight
  32. What is the purpose of fight-or-flight? And list 5 specific responses?
    • rapid preparation for or adaptationto stress or exercise
    • 5 responses:
    • vasoconstriction (skin)
    • vasodilation (skeletal muscles)
    • GI mobility slows
    • bronchioles dilate
    • excitation of heart
    • (these are 5 things that happen during stress or exercise)