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Define white matter?
Define gray matter?
unmyelinated fibers and neuron cell bodies
fiber bundle CNS
Define nerve and 2 types?
- fiber bundler PNS
- 1. cranial
- 2. spinal
Define meninges and list in order from superficial to deep?
- covering of CNS, both brain and spinal cord
- a. dura mater
- b. arachnoid
- c. pia mater- rich in minute blood vessels
What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?
cushions and nourishes CNS
CSF filled spaces
Explain why brain damage occus rapidly with brief interruption of arterial blood supply?
- No flow for 4 min. -> brain damage d/t
- - brain doesn't store oxygen or glucose
- - can't us fatty acids for E
Define stroke and provide alternate ames?
- tissue death d/t clotting or bleeding
- aka: cerebrovascular accident and brain attack
What is the function of the blood brain barrier? And the structured that compose it?
- selective exchange between blood and brain tissue
- composed of: vessell wall and pia mater
What are the spinal cord function?
impulse conduction and spinal reflexes
automatic fast response to change
List the anatomical parts of the spinal reflexes in order?
- 1. receptor
- 2. sensory neuron
- 3. control center
- 4. motor neuron
- 5. effector
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
cordination, equilibrium, posture
What is the function of the thalamus?
relays sensory info to cortex
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
- Produces ADH and oxytocin
- autotomic nervous system
- endocrine system
- thirst sleep
Which major division of the brain contains the medulla?
What is the significance of the decussation pyramids?
motor fibers cross
What is the vital reflex centers of the medulla oblongata? And what does each regulate?
- 1. cardiac (BP)
- 2. vasomotor (BP)
- 3. breathing
What are the 3 types of functional areas of the cortex?
- a. sensory
- b. motoer
- c. association
What is the function of sensory?
perception of pain, touch, pressure, and temperature
What is the function of motor?
control of skeletal muscles
What is the function of association?
What is the function of basal nuclei?
subconscious control of large proximal muscles groups
graph of electrical activity of the brain (waves)
Based on the ANS's other name (visceral efferent division of the PNS), what is the general type of structure served, functoins, and general location?
- structure- organ
- function- motor
- general location- PNS
What are the 3 effectors served by the ANS?
- a. smooth muscle
- b. cardiac muscle
- c. glands
Define dual innervasion and identify it's purpose?
sympathetic and parasympathetic...oppose each other at an organ
What is the distal receptor on the effector organs in the parasympathetic nervous system?
- Cholinergic, bind Ach
- function: resource conservation, inhibits organs that use energy
What is the distal receptor of the organs in sympathetic nervous system?
- adrenergic, bind norepinephrine
- function: fight-or-flight
What is the purpose of fight-or-flight? And list 5 specific responses?
- rapid preparation for or adaptationto stress or exercise
- 5 responses:
- vasoconstriction (skin)
- vasodilation (skeletal muscles)
- GI mobility slows
- bronchioles dilate
- excitation of heart
- (these are 5 things that happen during stress or exercise)