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what is the sperm pathway
- seminiferous tubules
- rete testis
- vas deferens
what is polyestrous and give an example
- animals that have several estrous cycles per year or breeding season.
- Ex: cow & sow
what is seasonally estrous and give an example
- mate only certain seasons of the year. have several estrous periods during the breeding season
- EX: mare & most sheep
what are the sleep patterns of all different species
- horse: sleep a few hours standing up. short and irregular
- domesticated livestock and birds: deep sleep similar to humans
- mature cattle and sheep: b/c of the continous movement of the rumen & reticular rumen laying on its side or relaxation of the sternum rare to see deep unless its a baby calves or lambs.
- pigs: sleep soundly for longer periods of time and more hours. similar to humans and dogs
- birds: sleep while standing or perched. higher level of consciousness tham pigs
what is photoprinting and what does it influence
- the amount of daylight exposure in a 24hr period.
- it influences egg laying, breeding in animals
whats the purpose of the scrotum
aids sperm production and survival by keeping testicles 4-8 degrees cooler then deep body temp
what is epididymis
a tortuous tube leading from the testicle. storage and maturation site for sperm
what are some advantages of AI
- reduce risks of spreading STD
- more rapid genetic improvement through use of superior sires
- reduction or elimination of cost and risk of maintaining a sire for a small herd or flock
what are the different parts of the sperm?
what can affect sperm production
- enviromental factors
- extreme undereating after an animal has been well fed
- a major decrease in protein content
an increase in the size of cells
an increase in the number of cells
the building up of body tissues
breaking down of body tissues
what is embryo transfer
the transfer of ovas from a donor to an animal who is already been breed
a structure in mammals that provides the exchange of nutrients and waste materials b/w the maternal and fetal system
what are the structure of the placenta
- chorion: outermost membrane in contact with the lining of the uterus
- allantois: second membrane that lines the chorion, and joins the amnion to form the allantoic sac. lead to the fetal sac to provide waste removal
- amnion: innermost membrane.surrounds the fetus and forms the second fluid filled sac. cushions the fetus from shock.
What role does protein play in a horses nutrition
- excessive levels of protein can be detrimental to a horses performance.
- other than a small amount of nitrogenous compounds lost in perspiration, little protein is used for physical work
inherited animal behaivors
- limited agility and docile temperament
- precocial young
- promiscuos mating
- social organization
what happens to feed amounts as animal matures
as an animal grows fat deposition increases and muscle growth slows, therefore daily nutrition requirements for maintenance increase. Thus, the feed or nutrition needed to produce a pound of growth increases as the animal approaches mature size
what is FCR
- feed conversion ratio
- the measure amount of food an animal needs to eat to gain a specific amount of weight
why is sperm evaluated
for sperm concentration and motility
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