A&P Chapter 3

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A&P Chapter 3
2011-10-08 21:04:57
cell cells

A&P Chapter 3
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  1. Name all the parts that make up the cell structure.
    • 1.Cell membrane/plasma membrane
    • 2. Cytoplasm
    • 3.Nucleus
    • 4.Cytoplasmic organelles
  2. What are cells?
    Structural & Functional unit of all living matter.
  3. What is the purpose of the cell membrane/plasma membrane?
    • 1.Separates cytoplasm from outside of the cell
    • 2.Communicates between cell and the enviroment.
  4. Name the structures of the cell membrane/plasma membrane.
    • 1.it is Semipermeable/Selectively permeable.(it controlls passage of materials)
    • 2.it has phospholipid bilayer
    • 3.Embedded proteins
    • 4.Glycocalyx:(superficially projecting carbohydrates
    • 5.specialized projections(ex: cillia)
  5. What is the purpose of Cell membrane Proteins?
    1.provide stucture & anchors cell to other structures

    2.Receptor proteins(communicate ions,hormones,neurotransmitters)

    3.Carrier Proteins(Transports solutes across the membrane.

    4.Enzymes(catalyze reactions within extracellular fluid or in teh cytosol
  6. What is the purpose of Membrane Carbohydrates? (Glycocalyx)
    • 1.Lubricates and protects
    • 2.Anchoring and Locomotion
    • 3. Receptors bind specific extracellulare chemicals to cell
    • 4.Immune recognition:Does this cell belong to us is the membrane normal etc.)
  7. Purpose and all types of Cell membrane projections? 3 types

    (not present on all cells)
    • Microvilli
    • 1.Increases absorption of surface of cell
    • 2.Increases surface area
    • ex:intestinal surface
    • Cilia
    • 1.provides movement
    • ex airways,uterine tubes
    • Flagella
    • 1.provides propulstion
    • ex:sperm tail
  8. What does the Nucleus do?
    • 1.Controls cell structure and functions(that are required for maintenance and repair of the cell)
    • 2.Stores genetic material which controls protein synthesis.
  9. Name the parts of the Nucleus and explain there purpose.
    • 1.Nuclear membrane:allows chemical exchange with cytosol, Connects with rough endoplasmic reticulum.
    • 2.Nucleoplasm: gel inside nucleus
    • 3.Nucleolus: Constructs componens of ribosomes(nucleus always has 1 or more)
  10. Name all the 8 organelles
    • 1.Mitochondria
    • 2.Ribosomes
    • 3.Endoplasmic Reticulum(Rough and Smooth)
    • 5.golgi apparatus
    • 6.inclusion bodies
    • 7.lysosomes
    • 8.cytoskeleton
  11. What does the Mitochondria do?
    Name the parts of the Mitochondria.
    • Creates ATP (fuel for cellular functions)
    • 1.Outer membrane
    • 2.inner membrane
    • 3.Enzymes
    • 4.Cristae (folds in the center)
  12. What do Ribosomes do?
    Where are they located in the cell?
    where are they made?
    • Ribosomes create protein
    • 1.located free in cytoplasm
    • 2.Attatched to the Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • They are made in the Nucleolus
  13. What do both Endoplasmic Reticulum do?
    • SER-Creates lipids and steroids
    • RER-Creates proteins(Due to attatched ribosomes)
    • Bothe ER act as assembly lines
  14. What is the Golgi Apparatus do?
    • 1.Recieves protein from the endoplasmic Reticulum and complets a complex molecule for secretion EX:protein&Glucose=glycoprotein
    • 2.Packages enzymes for use in the cytoplasm
    • 3.maintains plasma membrane
    • (acts as the final assembly/completes finishing touches)
  15. What are Inclusion bodies and what do they do?
    • 1.they are temporary bodies that appear and disappear as needed
    • (they are formed by pinching off membranes of the ER or Golgi apparatus)
    • ex:Vesicles
  16. What are vesicles(both types) and what do they do?
    • they are temporary transport compartments known as inclusion bodies
    • 1.secretory vesicles-take substances to cell membrane
    • 2.Transport vesicles-Move substances through cytoplasm.
  17. What are Lysosomes and what do they do?
    They are organelles contain powerful enxymes that dissolve debris and pathogens.
  18. What sturcture has the instructions for making the protein?
  19. What stucture will assemble the protein?
    Rogh Endoplasmic Reticulum
  20. How will proteins be moved throughout the cell?
    Transport vesicles
  21. where would a glucose molecule be added to a protein molecule?
    Golgi apparatus
  22. how is the glycoprotein transported to the cell membrane?
    Secretary Vesicle
  23. Root words
    • 1.dissolve
    • 2.body
    • 3.begining
    • 4.eat/swallow
  24. What is the Cytoskeleton what are its sturctures and what does it do?
    • it is a organelle that provedes shape and support for the cell
    • it also assists in cell movement
    • its structures are
    • 1.microfilaments
    • 2.microtubules
  25. What is Passive transport?
    Transport that does not require energy from the cell (ATP)
  26. What is Active transport?
    Transport that expends ATP to move things within the cell
  27. Name the 3 types of Passive transport
    • 1.diffusion
    • 2.osmosis
    • 3.filtration
  28. Name the 3 types of Active transport
    • 1.pump
    • (visicular transports)
    • 2.exocytosis
    • 3.endocytosis
  29. Root words
    • 1.same
    • 2.low
    • 3.high
    • 4.blood
    • 5.dissolve
    • 6.Concentraion
  30. what is diffusion?
    A passive transport mechanism that acts as a dye tablet placed in water. it continues to equilibriate untill all areas have the same concentration.
  31. What is Osmosis?
    • A passive transport mechanism that folows the OSMOTIC PULL system
    • 1.solvent moves from less concentrated side to more concentrated side throuh a semi permiable membrane due to osmotic pull(Water follows salt protein and sugar this is known as osmotic pull)
  32. What is Tonicity?
    Measure of concentraion by a % value
  33. when someting is Isotonic it is?
    at a normal concentration(balanced)
  34. when something is Hypotonic it is?
    at a low concentration
  35. when something is Hypertonic it is?
    at a Higher concentration
  36. what is Filtration?
    • it is a passive transport mechanism.
    • Requires a filter Ex: membrane with holes or pores
    • it is controled by ballance of pressure
    • ex-osmotic pressure vs. Hydrostatic pressure