A successful geological clock was possible only after 20th Century scientists made important discoveries in the field of
A. subatomic physics
Geologists use certain guiding principles when they attempt to read the story of the rocks in a particular
locale. Which of these only applies to sedimentary rocks?
B. original horizontality
Which environment would be the most unsuitable for the preservation of an ancient organism?
A. burial in a lava flow
The first fossils of both dinosaurs and mammals can be found in sedimentary rocks of the ________ period
Life, originally confined to bodies of water on Earth, begins to move onto land near the end of the
D. A and C
Evidence for the use of stone tools can be found as far back as:
C. the Australopiths
While no other hominin survived to live alongside you and me today, fully modern humans did share the Earth with ________ for some thousands of years.
A. H. neanderthalensis
Sponges are members of Kingdom
Just after modern plants evolved from their algal ancestors, they diverged into these two main groups:
A. vascular and non-vascular
Plant embryos develop into a (an):
The greatest diversity of animal life today can be found where?
D. in the ocean
Which of these objects of the Solar System appear to have made a major difference in the course of life on
Which of these organisms would likely leave the fewest fossils, of any type?
A fossil plant is found to be approximately 12,000 years
old. Knowing this, we can conclude the fossil contained _________ of the normal ratio of C-14 to C-12.
Determination of the age of the Moon could be made by finding the abundance of which of these radioactive daughter products in a rock sample?
You come across an angular unconformity in a roadcut along an interstate highway. The story of the road cut rock mass tells you __________ had to have happened in the deep past.
D. all of these
Someone hands you a broken piece of sandstone and in it, you find a pencil-thick hole that meanders its way
through the rock mass for several inches. Which of these is a likely but not definitive, explanation for the
B. made by burrowing worm
The oldest plants on Earth began to grow during the time of the:
A. builders of the Egyptian Giza pyramid complex
Developed by James Hutton, the concept that present day geological processes could be extended into the past is known as:
B. the principal of uniformity
Early attempts to derive an age of the Earth did NOT include:
C. rate of speciation events
The modern, accurate geological clock uses ________ with which to determine the age of rock samples.
D. the decay rate of radioactive isotopes
The place in a sedimentary rock mass where there exist missing layers due to ancient erosion is called a (an):
Any evidence of former life given this term:
The scientific study of the history of life as recorded in fossils is called:
A void space in sediment left by a dissolved shell will create a kind of fossil called a (an):
Distinctive fossils of short-lived plant or animal species that were distributed widely over the Earth are useful
to paleontologists and geologists in establishing age correlation and are termed:
A. index fossils
The smallest blocks of the geologic calendar:
Fossils most similar to life forms which exist in the present-day are found in sedimentary rocks of the ________ era.
The coal deposits we now use as a source of energy were deposited during the ________.
The collective term now used to refer to modern humans and our humanlike ancestors:
Organisms of the genus homo first appear in the fossil record about ________ years ago.
A. 2.5 million
The science of naming organisms and grouping them into logical categories:
Mammals, reptiles, and amphibians are all examples of a group of lifeforms classified in the same biological
Evidence of relatedness between and among organisms is gather from:
D. all of these
Most members of the Kingdom _______ are one-celled organisms.
Plants, fungi, and animals all appear to have had a common origin among the