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Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky's idea of the area between a child's level of independent performance and assisted performance.
Vygotsky: The interactions of a child with their social environment that help shape the child's development.
Vygotsky: A teacher assists child through ZPD and trails off as the child becomes able to do actions on their own.
Level of Independent Functioning
Vygotsky: level at which the child can perform on their own.
Level of Assisted Functioning
Vygotsky: Level at which child can perform with the assistance of a teacher.
- Concrete Operational
- Formal Operational
Piaget: The stage of a child's life from about 2-7 years. Features are symbolic function, egocentrism, and animistic thinking.
Piaget: The stage of a child's life from about 7-11 years of age. The child grasps logical operations on concrete objects and events.
Piaget's pre-operational period: objects stand for things. For example, a toy car is a miniature version of the real thing.
Piaget's pre-operational period: Child has difficulty grasping view of others. For example, a child with a sister asked "do you have a sister?" will answer "yes" but when asked "does your sister have a sister?" they will answer no or be unsure.
Piaget's pre-operational period: The belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions. Children tend to have imaginary friends and draw faces or give words to their inanimate drawings. (such as the smiley faces on the flowers)
Piaget's pre-operational period: Children in the pre-operational stage are perception-bound. If the look of an object changes, children are unaware that the item itself has remained the same (Liquid in different containers, playdough in a different shape, pennies in a line versus pennies in a square.)
Piaget's version of education
Emphasis on discovery learning- Classroom would have many centers and stations, children would discover and learn at their own pace.
Vygotsky's version of education
Assisted discovery, peer collaboration. Students would be grouped with peer leaders of students that grasp concepts faster and would work together to learn new things.
Cycle of Violence Hypothesis
The abuse and neglect children suffer predisposes them as adults to be abusive. Yet only 1/3 of people that were abused as children go on to abuse or neglect their children.
Intentional neglect or physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment to any child under the age of 18.
Physical indicators of abuse
- Unexplained brusies or welts, especially in unexplainable places.
- Bruises in various stages of healing, or in unusual shapes or clusters.
- Unexplained fractures or dislocations
- Human bite marks
- Bald patches
- Retinal hemorrhage
- Abdominal injuries
Behavioral indicators of abuse
- Reports injury by parents.
- Gives unbelievable explanation of injuries.
- Feels deserving of punishment.
- Afraid to go home.
- Overly shy, tends to avoid physical contact.
- Displays emotional extremes.
Externalizing behavior disorder, affects 3-5% of school-aged children, boys 5-10x more likely to be affected than boys. Children with ADHD are of normal intelligence.
Etiology (Cause) of ADHD
- Early theory: Minimal brain dysfunction
- Current theory: Neurological brain imbalance, frontal lobe dysfunction, or neruotransmitter problems.
Symptoms of ADHD
- Must persist for at least 6 months, have begun before age 7, and present in at least 2 situations.
- The disorder must impair functioning and cannot be explained by other disorders.
- Fails to pay close attention to details.
- Makes careless errors.
- Doesn't appear to listen.
- Does not follow through on instructions or chores.
- Has trouble organizing tasks or activities.
- Dislikes or avoids sustained mental effort.
- Loses materials.
- Easily distracted.
- Squirms or fidgets.
- Inappropriately leaves seat.
- Inappropriately runs and climbs.
- Has trouble quietly playing.
- Appears driven or "on the go"
- Talks excessively.
- Answers questions before asked.
- Has trouble waiting turn.
- Interrupts or intrudes on others.
- Drugs (Ritalin, Methylphenidate - don't work for everyone, must be optimal, long-term questionable.)
- Social-Skills Training
- Behavior Therapy
Chronological age and mental age make up IQ (intelligence quotient) that is MA/CA. Test was developed to detect children with low intelligence.
- Verbal Intelligence
- Performance intelligence
- Full scale IQ
- Cognitive-developmental approach.
- Clinical interview procedure.
- Heinz Dilemma
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
- Level 1: Pre-Conventional Morality (Self-Interest)
- Stage 1: Punishment
- Stage 2: Reward
- Level 2: Conventional Morality (Social Approval)
- Stage 3: Interpesonal Relations
- Stage 4: Social Order
- Level 3: Post-Conventional Morality (Abstract Ideals)
- Stage 5: Social Contract
- Stage 6: Universal Rights
- 3 Stages of Moral Development for Women:
- 1. Orientation toward individual survival (whatever is best for oneself)
- 2. Goodness as self sacrifice (do what is nice)
- 3. Morality of nonviolence (compromise)
- Who a child thinks they are.
- Influcenced by academics, social environment, emotions, and physicality.
- How the child feels about being who they are.
- Influenced by child-rearing practices and attributions (mastery-oriented and learned helplessness) as well as social comaprisons.
Stages of Friendship
- 1. 4-7 years, friends that are like oneself.
- 2. 8-10 years, what friends can benefit you with.
- 3. 11-15 years, friends you can trust and be honest with.
Core Deficits of Autism
Impairments in social interaction and communication, excesses in restrictive and repetitive behavior.
Associated features of Autism
- Agressive/self-injurious behavior
- Odd responses to sensory stimuli (food selectivity)
- Abnormal sleep patterns
- Splinter Skills (exceptional abilities in 10%)
Treatment of Autism
- Early Intensive Behavior Interaction (Applied Behavior Analysis)
- Common unsupported treatments: gluten free, casin free diet, chelation therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, facilitated communication.