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Define white matter:
Define gray matter:
2 types of nerves:
- White matter is the myelinated fibers
- Gray matter is unmyelinated fibers & neuron cell bodies
- Tract is fiber bundle in Central Nervous System
- Nerve is fiber bundle in Peripheral Nervous System
2 types of nerves are cranial and spinal
What are meninges?
List in order from skull to brain.
Meninges are coverings of Central Nervous System.
- In order from skull to brain:
- Dura matter
- Pia matter
What are functions of cerebrospinal fluid?
Cerebrospinal fluid cushions and nourishes.
Ventricles are cerebrospinal fluid filled spaces.
Why does brain damage occur rapidly with brief interruption of arterial blood supply?
the brain doesn't store oxygen or glucose and the brain cannot use fatty acids for energy
What is a stroke?
Alternative names for a stroke?
A stroke is tissue death due to clotting or bleeding
Other names are Brain Attack and Cerebrovascular Accident
1.What are the functions of the blood brain barrier?
2.What is it made of?
1. The blood brain barrier is the selective exchange between blood & brain tissue.
2. It is composed of vessel wall & pia mater
What are the spinal chord functions?
impulse conduction & spinal reflexes
Define reflex & list anatomical parts in order
Reflex is automatic fast response to change
Anatomical parts in order: 1. receptor 2. sensory neuron 3. control center 4. motor neuron 5. effector
What is function of cerebellum?
- Cerebellum--> coordination, equilibrium & posture
What is function of thalamus?
relays sensory information to the cortex
What is function of hypothalamus?
produces ADH & oxytocin
regulates ANS, endocrine system, temperature, feeding, thirst, and sleep
What is function of basal nuclei?
subconscious control of large prox. muscle groups ( hips/shoulders)
Which major division of the brain contains the medulla?
What is significance of the decussation of pyramids?
this is where the motor fibers cross
What are the vital reflex centers?
- The vital reflex centers are:
- 1. cardiac--> regulates blood pressure
- 2. vasomotor--> regulates blood pressure
- 3. breathing
Cortex is the superficial gray matter
3 Functional areas of cortex & list their functions
- 1. sensory--> this is perception of pain, touch, pressure and temperature
- 2. motor--> this controls the skeletal muscles
- 3. association--> higher functions
this is a graph of the electrical activity of the brain (waves)
Visceral efferent division of the PNS--identify type of structure being served, it's function, it's general location.
- structure being served is organ
- it's functions is to send info away from CNS to organs
- general location is Peripheal Nervous System
3 effectors served by the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Effectors served are smooth muscle, glands and cardiac muscles
Define dual innervation & it's purpose
Dual innervation is when the Sympathetic & Parasympathetic cause opposite effects they are able to counterbalance each other.
It's purpose is to keep the body regulated.
Name distal receptor on effector organs in parasympathetic nervous systems & the neurotransmitter that binds.
- Distal receptors are chollinergic -- binds acetylcholin
- Function--promotes anabolic--inhibits organs that use energy.
Name distal receptor on effector organs in sympathetic nervous system & the neurotransmitter that binds.
- Distal receptors are adrenergic
- Binds to norepinephrine
Functions of Parasympathetic & Sympathetic divisions
- Parasympathetic function is to "rest & digest"--conservation--promotes anabolic
- Sympathetic functions is "fight or flight"--rapid preparation for adaptation to stress or exercise
What is the purpose of fight-or-flight & list 5 specific responses to it's activation
The purpose of "fight-or-flight" is to prepare for adaptation to stress or exercise(physical survival)
- 5 responses to it's activation are:
- 1. vasco constriction (skin)
- 2. vasodilation (skelectal muscle)
- 3.G.I. motility slows
- 4. Airways in lungs dialate->bronchioles dilate
- 5. excitation of heart (heart rate speeds up)