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Definition of communication
Is a transactional process involving participants who occupy different but overlapping environments and create relationships through the exchange of messages, many which are affected by external, physiological, and psychological noise.
Examples of interpersonal communication
- -Quantitative definition: interaction between two people.
- -Qualitative definition: occurs when two people treat one another as unique individuals.
CMC (computer mediated communications)
Communication between individuals that is conducted via technological channels such as emails, chat room, texting, and instant messages
The types of needs communication can satisfy
- -physical health (people who are socially isolated catch common colds more, high blood pressure, obesity, die prematurely).
- - Identity needs- our sense of identity comes from the way we interact with other people and how they react to us(are we smart or stupid, attractive or ugly).
- - Social needs- pleasure, affection, companionship, escape, relaxation, and control
Transactional model of communication
-Use the word communicator instead of sender and receiver (not in a back-and-forth manner)
Principles and misconceptions of interpersonal communication
- -Communication can be intentional or unintentional (principle)
- - Communication is irreversible (principle)
- - It is impossible not to communicate (principle)
- - Communication is unrepeatable (principle)
- - Content and relational dimensions (principle)
- - More communications is not always better (misconception)
- - Meanings are not in words (misconception)
- - Successful communication doesn’t always involve shared understanding (misconception)
- - No single person or event causes another’s reaction (misconception)
- - Communication will not solve all problems (miscomputation)
Behavior that treats others as objects rather than individuals.
Characteristics of effective communicators
- Ø Wide range of behaviors; example: a friend telling a racist joke
- Ø The ability to choice the most appropriate behavior (which skill will work best in certain situation)
- Ø Skill at performing behavior
- Ø Cognitive Complexity- the ability to construct a variety of framework for viewing an issue
How the self-concept is defined
The relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself.
What factors influence the self-concept
- Ø Biology
- Ø Reflected appraisal-develops a self-concept that reflect the way we believe others see us.
- Ø Social comparison: evaluating ourselves on how we compare to others.
- Ø Significant others: people opinions we especially value.
- Ø Reference groups: who we compare ourselves too.
4 reasons why the self-concept is subjective
- Ø Obsolete information
- Ø Distorted feedback
- Ø Perfection
- Ø Social expectations
- Communication strategies that people use to influence how others view them.
- o Private self: a reflection of the self- concept
- o Presenting self: is a public opinion the way we want others to view us.
- Ø Holding an expectation (for yourself or for others)
- Ø Behaving in accordance with that expectation
- Ø The expectation coming to pass
- Ø Reinforcing the original expectation
4 requirements for changing the self-concept
- Ø Having a realistic perception of yourself
- Ø Having realistic expectations
- Ø Having the will to change
- Ø Have the skill to change
Making sense of the world (we are exposed to more than we can take in).
Stages of perceptual process: examples of each
- Ø Selection: which impression we will attend to
- o Example: we are attracted to someone who is taller or louder
- Ø Organization: arrange our perception in some meaningful way
- o Example: classifying people according to appearance, social roles, interaction style or traits.
- Ø Interpretation: interpreting events that make sense to us
- o Example: Someone smiling at you across the room is that person interested in romance or just being polite
- Ø Negotiation: Trying to achieve a shared perspective
- o Example: two fighting children (narratives).
How do physiological differences, cultural differences, social roles(including gender), and the self-concept influence the perceptual process
- Ø Physiological influences: The senses, age, health and fatigue, hunger biological cycle
- Ø Cultural influences:
- o Collective vs. Individualistic
- Ø Social roles
- o Gender roles: how men and women are supposed to behave.
- · common tendencies that influence the accuracy or inaccuracies of our perceptions
- Ø We judge ourselves more charitably than others
- o Self-serving bias: we tend to judge ourselves in the most generous terms possible
- Ø We cling to the first impression
- o Halo effect: describe the tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristic.
- Ø We assume that others are similar to us
- o Example: constructive criticism to an instructor
- Ø We are influenced by the obvious
- o Example: when fighting blaming the one who lashes out first.
- Ø A better way to handle you interpretations
- o A description of the behavior you noticed.
- o At least two possible interpretations of behavior.
- o A request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior.
influences on emotional expression
- Ø Personality
- Ø Culture
- Ø Gender
- Ø Social conventions
Facilitative and debilitative emotions
- Ø Facilitative: Emotions that contribute to effective emotions
- Ø Debilitative: emotions that prevent a person from functioning effectively.
Seven fallacies that result in debilitative emotions
- Ø Fallacy of Perfection: Communicator should be able to handle every situation.
- Ø Fallacy of Approval: vital to get approved by every person.
- Ø Fallacy of Should: the inability to distinguish between what is and what should be
- Ø Fallacy of Overgeneralization: based on limited information and exaggerate shortcomings.
- Ø Fallacy of Causation: emotions are caused by others rather than by one’s own self-talk.
- Ø Fallacy of Helplessness: satisfaction in life is determined by forces outside of you control.
- Ø Fallacy of Catastrophic Expectations: if something bad can happen it will.
How is language symbolic?
Ø There’s only an arbitrary connection between words and the ideas of things which they refer.
Semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic rules
- Ø Semantic rules: reflect the way in which users of a language assign meaning to a particular linguistic symbol using a word.
- Ø Syntactic Rules: governing the grammar of language.
- Ø Pragmatic Rules: decide how to interpret messages in a given context.
Ø Statements that have more than one common definition.
Ø Gain their meaning by comparison (example: large or small school)
Abstract versus behavioral language
- Ø Abstract: is vague in nature (example: you need to have a better attitude).
- Ø Behavioral Language: specific things people say or do (example: you need to complain less about working overtime on weekends).
Naming and identity
Ø Shape the way others thinks of us, the way we view ourselves, and the way we act.
Divergence & Convergence
- Ø Divergence: Communicators that want to set themselves away from others.
- Ø Convergence: adapting one’s speech style to match that of others.
- Ø Fact-opinion Confusion:
- Ø Fact-Inference Confusion (conclusion arrived at from an interpretation evidence)
- Ø Emotive Language: seems to describe something but describe the speakers attitude toward it.
“It”,”but”, “I”, “you”, “we” language
- Ø “it” Statements: rejection to take responsibility for their beliefs or feelings
- Ø “But” Statements: explain why
- Ø “I” Statements”: accepting responsibility for a message
- Ø “you”: express a judgment on the other person
4 elements of “I” language
- Ø The other persons behavior
- Ø Your interpretation
- Ø Your feelings
- Ø The consequences that the other person’s behavior has for you.
Gender differences and language
- Ø Conversational style
- o Women speech is typically more indirect, elaborate and focused on relationship
- o Men speech is more direct, and task-oriented
- Ø Content
- o Female friends spent time discussing personal and domestic subjects, family, health, weight, food, and clothing.
- o Male friends discuss music, current events, sport, and business
Culture differences and language
- Ø Verbal communications styles
- o Low-content cultures value using language to express thoughts feelings, and ideas as directly as possible.High-content cultures value using language to maintain social harmony.
linguistic relativism & Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
- Ø Linguistic relativism: that the worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak.
- Ø Saphir-whorf hypothesis: Theory of linguistic relativity in which language shapes a culture’s perceived reality.
characteristics of nonverbal communication
- Ø Nonverbal skills are vital
- o Nonverbal encoding and decoding skills are strong predictor of popularity, attractiveness, and social economic statues.
- Ø All behaviors have communication value
- Ø Nonverbal communication is relational
- Ø Identity management
- o Defines the kind of relationship we want to have with others
- o Different between face-to-face and CMC behavior.
Interpersonal Communication is relational and content based
- Ø Relational: smiling a lot when you are attracted to someone at a party
- Ø Content: street officer using hand motions to direct traffic
NV communication functions…example repeating, regulating, etc.
- Ø Repeating: Giving directions and they repeating them with your hand movements
- Ø Complementing: nonverbal behaviors match the thoughts and emotions the communicator is expressing linguistically.
- Ø Substituting: when communicators are reluctant to express their feelings. (example: rolling your eyes, or yarning when speaking out will be inappropriate)
- Ø Accenting: using certain words with the voice (example: pointing your finger)
- Ø Regulating: influence the flow of verbal communication
- Ø Contradicting: contradicting messages in their verbal and nonverbal messages. (example: with a red face saying no I am not angry)
- Ø Chronemics: Study how humans use and structure time.
Types of NV com (kinesics, paralanguage, proxemics, chronemics, territory, and haptics)
- Ø Kinesics: body position and motion (example: posture, gestures, and facial expressions).
- Ø Proxemics: study the way people and animals use space (distance and territory)
- Ø Appearance: how we look send messages to people
- Ø Haptic: Study of touching
Gender, culture and nonverbal communication
- Ø Gender
- o Women smile more, use more facial expressions, touch other more, stand closer to others, and make more eye contact
- Ø Culture
- o Monochronic: emphasizing punctuality, schedules, and completing one task at a time.
- o Polychronic: with flexible schedules in which multiple task our pursued at the same time.
4 zones of personal space
- Ø Intimate
- Ø Personal
- Ø Social
- Ø Public distance
Common forms of gestures
- Ø Illustrators: movement that accompany speech
- Ø Emblems: known nonverbal behaviors (example: the nodding of the head means yes).
- Ø Adaptors: unconscious body movements (example: shivering when it’s cold).Manipulators: a sign of discomfort (example: fidgeting).