BIOL 223 Chapter 5-3

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christophertkennedy
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107335
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BIOL 223 Chapter 5-3
Updated:
2011-10-08 19:06:55
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anatomy integumentary system
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Study Cards for Chapter 5 BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. What are the three pigments that determine skin color discussed in class?
    • hemoglobin
    • carotenes
    • melanin
  2. Where is hemoglobin found?
    in the blood
  3. What does hemoglobin contain that becomes oxidized providing a bright red hue?
    iron
  4. The pigment that contributes reddish or pink tones to the skin is:
    hemoglobin
  5. Where do obtain carotenes from?
    yellow and orange fruits and vegetables
  6. The pigments that contribute a yellow/orange tone to the skin are:
    carotenes
  7. When carotenes are broken down in the body they produce what vitamin?
    vitamin A
  8. Besides pigmentation, in what other body function do carotenes play a role?
    color vision
  9. Which pigment plays the largest role in skin color?
    melanin
  10. A packaged vesicle of melanin is called a:
    melanosome
  11. True or False: The amount of melanin produced has no effect on skin tone.
    False - the more melanin produced the darker the skin tone
  12. Why does melanin surround the nucleus of the cell during extended exposure to the sun?
    to protect the DNA from UV radiation
  13. List the four "steps" of melanin distritbution discussed in class.
    • melanocytes synthesize melanin and package it into melanosomes
    • melanosomes migrate into the melanocyte processes
    • epidermal cells engulf a portion of the melanocyte processes
    • melanin gives cells pigment
  14. Define facultative skin color.
    changes in skin color away from your genetically predetermined skin tone
  15. In how many stages does UV radiation affect skin tone?
    two
  16. The 1st stage of UV radiation is also known as:
    immediate skin darkening
  17. How long after exposure to UV radiation does immediate skin darkening occur?
    1-2 hours after exposure
  18. What happens inside your cells during immediate skin darkening?
    existing melanin redistributes to shield cell nuclei
  19. How long lasting are the effects of immediate skin darkening?
    effects fade in 24 hours
  20. The second stage of UV radiation is known as:
    classis tanning response
  21. How long after UV exposure do we see the classic tanning response?
    3 days after exposure
  22. What happens on a cellular level during the classic tanning response?
    new melanin is synthesized
  23. When do the effects of the classic tanning response fade?
    when the cells with greater concentrations of melanin are sloughed off
  24. What do we commonly call dihydroxyacetone?
    tanning lotion
  25. How do tanning lotions work?
    by staining or dying the skin
  26. What are the two hormones discussed in class that have an effect on skin color?
    • melanocyte stimilating hormone (MSH)
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  27. What does the hormone MSH increase?
    melanin production
  28. Due to it's origin from the same precursor molecule, ACTH can increase melanin production by doing what?
    binding to MSH receptors
  29. An increase in melanin production due to abnormal ACTH levels is a sympton of:
    Addison's disease
  30. List the six skin color irregularities discussed in class.
    • erythema
    • jaundice
    • cyanosis
    • pallor
    • albinism
    • vitiligo
  31. The skin color irregularity due to inflammation and increased blood flow that is responsible for a red tint is known as:
    erythema
  32. The buildup of bilirubin in the body, commonly caused by liver disease, causes this type of skin color irregularity.
    jaundice
  33. A blue tint to skin color caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood is known as:
    cyanosis
  34. A pale skin tone caused by blood loss or blood flow problems is called:
    pallor
  35. The absence of melanin caused by an autosomal recessive disease is known as:
    albinism
  36. An autoimmune disease that attacks melanocytes and stops them from producing melanin is:
    vitiligo
  37. Sweating that you are aware of that is visible as H2O on the surface of your skin is known as:
    sensible perspiration
  38. Sweat that evaporates immediately and can lead to dehydration is called:
    insensible perspiration
  39. Insensible perspiration is an effect of what body process?
    evaporative cooling
  40. Hydration occurs when a person is in a _______ solution.
    hypotonic
  41. Taking in water across the skin surface is known as:
    hydration
  42. Losing water through the surface of the skin is known as:
    dehydration
  43. Dehydration can occur if the body is submerged in a _______ solution for a long period of time.
    hypertonic
  44. Drugs that are adminstered through the skin in order to slow the metabolism of the chemicals are known as:
    transdermal drugs
  45. A burn that only involves the epidermis is known as a:
    1st degree burn
  46. True or False: Minor frostbite and sunburns are considered 1st degree burns.
    True
  47. List the three characteristics of 1st degree burns discussed in class.
    • usually heal well
    • may or may not exhibit scarring
    • red and painful
  48. A burn that involves the epidermis and the dermis are known as:
    2nd degree burns
  49. True or False: 2nd degree burns are painful, blistering burns that are much more likely to scar than 1st degree burns.
    True
  50. A burn that involves the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis are classified as:
    3rd degree burns
  51. True or False: 3rd degree burns are extremely painful.
    False - the actual burn is painless due to the total destruction of sensory receptors and hair follicles
  52. What complications are associated with serious burns?
    • fluid and electrolyte loss
    • infection
  53. List the four steps of serious burn treament.
    • fluid and electrolyte replacement
    • administration of intravenous antibiotics
    • debrisment, or removal of burned tissue
    • skin grafting
  54. A skin graft obtained from a burn victims own body is called an:
    autologous graft
  55. A skin graft obtained from a burn victim's identical twin is known as a:
    isogenic
  56. A skin graft that comes from a different person is known as an:
    allogenic graft
  57. What complications can result from an allogenic graft?
    tissue rejection of the graft
  58. A skin graft obtained from a different species is known as a:
    xenogenic graft
  59. True or False: Pig skin works well as a xenogenic graft source.
    True
  60. True or False: Xenogenic skin grafts are a good permanent fix for serious burn victims.
    False - xenogenic grafts are only temporary solutions

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