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  1. Membrane Structure
    • Lipid Bilayer
    • transmembrane proteins
    • Network of supporting fibers
    • Exterior Proteins and Glycoproteins
  2. Membrane Structure
    Proteins embedded in phospholipid by layer

    membrain is fluid-mosaic
  3. Fluid Mosaic Model
    proteins/phospholipids move freely in membrane

    diversity of proteins to exist in the membraine
  4. Membraines temp cool
    switch from fluid state to solid state
  5. membranes solidify
    temp depends on lipids
  6. Membranes unsaturated/saturated
    Unsaturated fatty acids are more fluid than saturated fatty acids
  7. Membranes fluid
    must be fluid to work properly (looks like salad oil)
  8. Cell membranes-Permeable
    Some substances pass easily/blocked completely

    some allowed in/out only through specfic transport protens
  9. Substances passed through membrane
    • Passive Transport
    • Active Transport
    • Bulk Transport
  10. Passive Transort
    Moves substances down concentration gradient
  11. Passive transport-movement
    • Diffuson
    • Facilitated diffusion
    • osmosis
  12. Diffusion
    Molecules constantly in motion/spread out

    like distance between each other

    diffuse from higher>lower concentration until equally spread out
  13. What can diffuse across a membrane
    Hydrocarbon,oxygen,carbon dioxide, some hydrophobic membrane
  14. Facilitated Diffusion
    involves proteins embedded in plasma membrane
  15. Biological Membranes
    depend on 2 proteins to shuttle substances:

    • channel proteins
    • carrier proteins
  16. channels
    membrane proteins form channels line with polar amino acids
  17. ion channels
    non polar (hydrophobic amino acids face outside channel toward fatty acid tails of lipid molecules
  18. Ion channels gated
    Gates can be open/closed-many mechanism for controlling this
  19. ion channels specific
    polar aa's lining interior of channel only attract one specific type of ion
  20. facilitated diffusion-carriers
    channels ions interact with the protein

    allow diffusion in both directions-one way sugars/amino acid transported

    movement depends on concentration of gradient
  21. passive transport-osmosis
    how solvents/water crosses
  22. hypertonic solution
    higher concentration of solute

    animall-shrivel and die
  23. hypotonic solution
    lower concentration of solute

    -animal cells swell and burst
  24. isotonic solution
    equal concentrtion of solute on either side of membranes
  25. *****osmosis very important in regulating water concentration within both plan and animal cells
  26. central vacuole
    reason why plants stand up
  27. hydrostatic pressure
    pressure the cytoplam exers on the cell membrane creating a turgid cell

    -plants happy with pressure/not enough water becomes floppy
  28. tugor
    makes cells firm
  29. osmoregulation
    maintaining water balance important in animal cells
  30. active transport
    • requires energy powered by ATP
    • move agains concenration gradient

    high to high referred transferring up gradient

    low to low referred to establishing down gradient
  31. # of systems/ active transport
  32. uniport transports
    move single type of solution 1 direction
  33. coupled transport
    single membreane protein moving 2types of solution at a time

    • symport
    • antiport
  34. symport
    move 2 solutes in the same direction
  35. antiport
    move 2 solutes in opposite directions one into cell and other in outer cell

    sodium potassium pump> moves sodium out and potassium into it
  36. exocytosis
    cells use to secrete large substances outside cel
  37. endocytosis
    cells use to make material into cell
  38. pinocytosis
    cell takes in liquid
  39. phagocytosis
    cell takes in particles
  40. receptor mdiated endocytosis
    • specific
    • trigger by bingding molecules to their receptors
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