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John Stuart Mill
- Utilitarianism/School of Liberalism
- -Focus on the individual, clear limitation of the power of the government.
- -Founder of the Harm-principle
- -Your freedom ends when you interefere with others.
- -Government should only step in when our actions are hurting someone else.
- -Ground mass is a threat to Individuality/Liberty.
- -Father of conservatism
- -Wrote "Reflections of the Revolution in France"
- -French Rev, total dismantle of institution, not saving anything-Wrong, unradical.
- -Wasnt against American Rev, but against colonialism.
- Utopia- Dangerous form
- Theres no perfect anything.
- -Religion reaches us morality.
- -Trust history ->Internalize those things that has been working in the past.
- -"Society is a contract, state is a partnership."
- Respect what ancestors have done and pass it on to the next generation without breaking it.
- -Freedom is good if you keep it under controll.
- -Change is a good thing, Innovation is terrible-
- -Believing in a natural aristocracy and that there is no best form of government.
Robert H. Bork
- -Social conservatism
- -wrote "Modern liberalism& Cultural decline" - Slouching toward gomorrah
- -Ethos in the american politics: 2 major problems:
- 1. Radical equalitarianism (equality of outcomes instead of opportunities, this promotes welfare state)
- 2. Radical individualism; want it now and easy and to any cost. Sexual morality has been diseased.
- -Technology is bad, we dont seek hard work.
- Culture is now we want to be entertained&consumption. - This is leading to collapse of culture and the nation.
- Need traditional sources of authority
- -Today seem to cure things with more politics- more problems
- Somewhat related to Dobson; Leader of the Religious right
- Founder of neoconservatism
- -"Godfather of neocon", talking about persuasions
- Not liking the concentrations of welfare.
- -Conservatism in America, healthier&efficient than Europe/because of the neocon.
- -Interested in history rather than econ&sociology
- -Neocons are comfortable in America - unting here because of the decline of democracy.
- Religion in republican - gives neocons more power than in Europe.
- -Ronald Reagan, Bush examples of other neocons.
- Usually associated with "getting as much power as possible"
- -Wrote the "little prince"
- - Better to be feared than to be loved.
- -People are superior guardian to the law
- - Machiavellis ideas became institutionalized in American constitution, Checks & Balances. Wanted to slow down the process of govt.
- The discourse- people more collective wise than one prince/king.
- -Governance by many
- -Footsteps for federalism.
- Wrote "Politics" - polity, politics model : one, few, many
- -Ancient democracy
- -Opposed for mixed government - keep an eye on each other
- -"Government could be divided into "true" and perverted according to who governerd and for the good of whom."
- -Democracy, lead to truth, ought to be govern by experts
- -Concerned with inequality
- -Idiocy= Self-interest
- - By participation we become better citizens.
- -Mixed constitution
- - Rule of law
- - Civic virtue, actively promote good citizenship.
- -Leading representative of classical conservatism
- -Brittish conservatism
- -Conservatism is a set of attitude, instead of principles.
- -Preference for thingd as they are
- -Desire for stability&order
- -"Politics is attending to the arrangement of society.
- - Wrote "On being conservative"
- Keep floating, changes are circumstances to which we have to accomadate ourselves.
- -Innovation - Improvement
- Change- must be suffered.
- Libertarian theorist, libertarian anarchist.
- - wrote "Paternalism vs Democracy"
- Allen is against the new paternalism- economic regulation,
- welfare state. Regulations from government.
- -Dangerous to the health of society.
- -Being stripped of piece by piece.
- - Showing how the government is unneccesarry evil.
- Drugs - shouldnt intervene, its our own choice.
- -We should decide our own choices.
- -Democracy can only survive when individuals are free from government interference to control their own lives.
- - wrote "Leviathan"
- Preliberal, ideas found in the Leviathan
- -Individual should obey whoever is in power, as long as you are protected.
- - Self-interest instead of demands.
- -Aims for a perfect liberty&equality
- -Founder of the State of Nature principle
- -Human life in the state of nature, would be a nightmare.
- -Need government to security, take equality&endorse it for individuals.
- -Father of Liberalism
- -There is no fixed status
- Right to worship religion, but with limits
- -Wrote "toleration&Government"
- -Deny social status, govt on the people
- - you have the right to life, liberty and property.
- "No one has authority over us without our consent".
- - Any govt that violates our rights, releases us and entitle us to overthrow and establish a new govt.
- Property=person, non property="non people"
- -Representative government: need govt for laws &enforce them and judge them.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
- Wel-fare liberalism school
- -Govt should take an active role in regulating the economy and protecting the poor and powerless from the powerful.
- -Wealthy rules in their own interest.
- -Use presidency to rule over the few to impoverish the many.
- 1936, Great Depression - defense of the New Deal.
- Saying that wealthy wont give up easily - democracy isnt meaningful for them
- -Corrupt practices in business
- School of liberalism
- - Philosopher of the Scottish Enlightment (leaving behind immaturity, self-govern yourself)
- -Provided the most influencial of laissez-faire.
- -Division of Labor/maximize peoples talent, more efficient.
- -wrote "wealth of nations"
- -Invisible hand of markets: let the forces of nature/work/human rule free.