BIOL 223 Chapter 6-2

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christophertkennedy
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107382
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BIOL 223 Chapter 6-2
Updated:
2011-10-09 01:29:22
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anatomy physiology skeletal system
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Study Cards for Chapter 6 BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. How does the epiphysis of a child differ from that of an adult?
    A child's epiphysis is composed of hyaline cartilage to allow for growth. An adult's epiphysis has been converted to spongy bone.
  2. What type of bone is found in the epiphysis of a long bone?
    spongy or cancellous bone
  3. Why is articular cartilage important?
    it reduces friction between articulating bones
  4. What is commonly found in the medullary cavity?
    bone marrow
  5. The exterior surface layer of bone is called the:
    periosteum
  6. The layer of bone that faces the medullary cavity is known as the:
    endosteum
  7. Which portion of the long bone will be comprised of compact bone?
    the diaphysis
  8. Which type of bone can withstand forces in a single direction, compact or spongy?
    compact
  9. What is the basic structure of flat bones?
    two layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone
  10. List the three components of bone tissue.
    • protein fibers
    • minerals
    • cell populations
  11. What type of protein fibers will be found in bone?
    collagenous fibers
  12. What proportion of bone is comprised of protein fibers?
    30%
  13. The protein fibers form a lattice structure around which _______ will be deposited.
    minerals
  14. What will happen to bone tissue if the protein fibers are removed?
    the bone will become brittle and shatter like glass
  15. List the two main mineral components of bone tissue.
    • calcium phosphate
    • calcium hydroxide
  16. Ca3(PO4)2 is the chemical formula for which bone mineral?
    calcium phosphate
  17. Ca(OH)2 is the chemical formula for which bone mineral?
    calcium hydroxide
  18. The two primary bone minerals combine to form what compound?
    hydroxyapatite
  19. What proportion of bone mass is mineral components?
    55%
  20. What would happen to bone tissue if the minerals were removed?
    the bone would be too flexible to support the body
  21. The deposition of Ca+2 salts onto bone tissue, combining with the protein lattice to become like concrete is the:
    calcification process
  22. The day to day metabolic activity of bone is maintained by which type of bone cell?
    osteocytes
  23. List the four types of bone cells discussed in lecture.
    • osteoprogenitor cells
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
    • osteoclasts
  24. Mesenchymal cells develop into which type of bone cell?
    osteoprogenitor cells
  25. What type of bone cell undergoes cell division?
    osteoprogenitor cells
  26. List the four steps discussed regarding the creation of an osteocyte.
    • mesenchymal cell differentiates into an osteoprogenitor
    • osteoprogenitor divides and makes an osteoblast
    • osteoblast synthesizes matrix until it is surrounded
    • osteoblast becomes an osteocyte
  27. What bone cells are bone building cells?
    osteoblasts
  28. Which type of bone cell is derived directly from stem cells?
    osteoclasts
  29. Which type of bone cell is a mature bone cell?
    osteocyte
  30. Which bone cells are multinucleate?
    osteoclasts
  31. What do osteoclasts secrete?
    lysosomal enzymes and acids
  32. What do the lysosomal enzymes break down?
    collagen fibers
  33. What do the acids secreted by osteoclasts break down?
    the mineral components of bone
  34. An immature bone that has not been mineralized is called an:
    osteoid
  35. Define osteolysis.
    bone breakdown
  36. Define osteogenesis.
    bone creation
  37. Define ossification.
    converting existing tissue into bone
  38. Define resporption.
    pulling minerals from the bone and sending it to the blood
  39. Compact bone is made up of repeating units called:
    osteons
  40. The center of an osteon is an area that contains blood vessels is called an:
    haversion canal
  41. What is the orientation of a haversion canal?
    they run parallel to the long axis of the bone
  42. How are concentric lamellae oriented?
    in concentric circles around a haversion canal
  43. How are circumferential lamellae oriented?
    in layers around the outer perimeters of bone
  44. Where does one find interstitial lamellae?
    in the spaces between osteons
  45. Which type of lamellae are considered "filler" lamellae?
    interstitial lamellae
  46. Define lamellae?
    layers of bone matrix
  47. In what direction do Volkmann's canals run?
    perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
  48. Smaller canals that connect haversion canals and are used for blood flow are called:
    Volkmann's canals
  49. Extensions of the osteocyte membrane and cytoplasm that allow one cell to communicate/transport with another cell are called:
    canaliculi
  50. Holes where the osteocytes live are known as:
    lacunae

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