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2011-10-11 02:06:13
Ch12 Ch13

organic chemistry
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  1. a hydrocarbon that contains one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
  2. a hydrocarbon that contains one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds C = C
  3. alkenes taht contain 2 double bonds
  4. alkenes taht contain 3 double bonds
  5. alkenes taht contain several double bonds
  6. -non polar
    -only attractive forces between their molecules are london dispersion forces
    -physical properties are similiar to alkanes with same carbon skeleton
    -insoluble in water
    -soluable in one another
    - float on water
    Alkenes and Alkynes
  7. If a molecule has n double bonds about which cis-trans isomerism is possible then 2n isomers are possible.

  8. four carbon chain with a carbon coming off of #2 Carbon
  9. Isoprene unit
  10. most alkene addition reactions are
    • exothermic
    • (the products are more stable, lower in energy, than the reactants.
  11. H adds to the less substituted carbon and X(cl,br,etc) adds to the more substituted carbon.
    Less Cs More Hs, add H
    More Cs, less Hs, add X
    Markovnikov's rule
  12. - low density weaker (high branched do not pack well)
    - trash bags
    Low-density polyethylenes (LDPE)
  13. high density, stronger (only minimal chain branching)
    - high melting point, (bottles, squeeze jugs)
    High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
  14. nCH2=CH2
    ethylene n means it continues
  15. any long chain molecule synthesized by bonding together many single parts
  16. single part that used in polymer
  17. a hydrocarbon that contains one or benzene-like rings
    aromatic compound
  18. a term used to describe aromatic compounds
  19. equals stability
    the length of a carbon-carbon bond in benzene is midway between that of a carbon-carbon single bond and a double bond. (in between)
  20. a hydrocarbon that contains two or more benzene rings, with each pair of rings sharing two adjacent carbon atoms.
    polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)
  21. the degree is determined by how many Cs are attached to the + C of the double bond
  22. addition of water
  23. the catalye foR hydration is most commonly
  24. the reagent for hydration is H2O dont forget that in the second step it is the water molecule, and then the THIRD STEP is called the loss of H+ which is called
  25. species containing one oxygen atom with 3 bonds to it and bearing a positive charge
    oxonium ion
  26. adding HCl is called
  27. adding Br2 is called
  28. adding H2 is called
    hydrogenation or reduction
  29. the catalyze or organic solvent used in adding Cl2 and Br2 is
  30. the reagent for adding brominatoin or chlorination is
    Br2 or Cl2
  31. the reagent in hydrogenation is
  32. The catalyze in hydrogenation is
    Pd, Pt, or Ni
  33. toluene
  34. xylene
  35. anisole
  36. benzoic acid
  37. aniline
    • top is ortho (o)
    • bottom left is para (p)
    • bottom right is meta (m)
  38. styrene
  39. Phenol
  40. benzealdehyde
  41. C6H5
  42. isoprene
  43. a hydrocarbon that contains 2 or more benzene rings, with each pair of rings sharing two adjacent carbon atoms.
    PAHs polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon
  44. by far the most characteristic reaction of aromatic compounds is substitution at a ring carbon. this is called
    aromatic substitution
  45. in Halogenation reaction of benzene the catalyze is
  46. in halogenation of benzene the reagent is
    • Cl2, Br2
    • the H and the halogen switch places, for product +H(X)
    • -H +Cl2 > -Cl + HCl
  47. in Nitration
    water always becomes a product!!!
    the catalyze is
  48. in Nitration of Benzene the reagent is
    • HNO3
    • - H + HNO3 > -NO2 + H2O
  49. In Nitration the nitro group can be reduced to a primary aminio by catalytic reduction using
    H2 as a reagent and a transition-metal as a catalyze
  50. Nitration with nitro reduction
    • - NO2 + 3H2 > -NH2 +2H2O
    • any benzene with nitro taht with H, Ni becomes NH2 as a product
  51. Sulfonation : heating an aromatic compound with concentrated H2SO4 results in
    an arenesulfonic acid
  52. the functional group of a phenol is a
    hydroxyl (-OH) group bonded to a benzene ring
    • 3-methylphenol
    • (m-Cresol)
  53. weak acids, insoluble in water, but react with a strong base, to form water-soluable salts. Do NOT react with weak bases
  54. oxidation requiring oxygen and NO other reactants.
    the reaction converts an R-H group to an R-O-O-H
    -radical chain reaction
  55. an atom of molecule with an unpaired electron C*
  56. removal of an H atom by light or heat
    Product is a
    carbon radical
  57. hydroperoxides
    • - are unstable
    • - nature has developed a series of defenses against these, including the phenol vitamin E
  58. is a natural antioxidant
    BHt and BHA are synthetic antioxidants
    radical scavengers, they form stable radicals and break the cycle of chain propagation steps.
    Phenols Vitamin E