Fluid & electrolytes(part 90-120)

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Ted
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10741
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Fluid & electrolytes(part 90-120)
Updated:
2010-03-15 23:29:28
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Potassium hyperkalemia hypokalemia calcium hypercalcemia hypocalcemia
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Fluid and electrolytes for nursing II
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  1. Name some sources of potassium.
    • Fruits and vegetabeles (bananas and oranges)
    • Salt substitutes
    • Potassium medications (PO, IV)
    • Stored blood

    These things are all sources of what electrolyte?
  2. What are some causes of Hyperkalemia (high serum potassium levels)
    • 1) Increased retention due to renal failure or potassiumj sparing diuretics
    • 2) Increased intake
    • 3) Mobilization from ICF due to tissue destruction or acidosis

    These things are all causes of hyper_______.
  3. Name some (5) clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia.
    • 1) Skeletal muscles weak or paralyzed
    • 2) Ventricular fibrillation or cardiac standstill
    • 3) Cardiac depolarization is impaired
    • 4) Repolarization occurs more quickly
    • 5) Abdominal cramping or diarrhea

    These are all clinical manifestations of what electrolyte imbalance?
  4. What's a nursing diagnosis for Hyperkalemia?
    Risk for injury.
  5. What's a potential complication with hyperkalemia?
    Arrhythmias are a potential complication with what electrolyte imbalance?
  6. Name some nursing implementations with hyperkalemia.
    • 1) Eliminate oral and parenteral K+ intake.
    • 2) Increase elimination of K+ (diuretics, dialysis, Kayexalate)
    • 3) Force K+ form ECF to ICF by IV insulin or sodium bicarbonate
    • 4) Reverse membrane effects of elevated ECF potassium by administering calcium gluconate IV

    These are all nursing implementations for what electrolyte imbalance?
  7. Hypokalemia is caused by what? (5)
    • Loss of potassium due to
    • 1) Aldosterone
    • 2) Loop diuretics
    • 3) GI losses
    • 4) Associated with Mg deficiency
    • 5) Movement of potassium into cells

    These things are all causes of what electrolyte imbalance.
  8. What are some clinical manifestations of hypokalemia?
    • 1) Decrease GI motiltiy
    • 2) Altered airway responsiveness
    • 3) Impaired regulation of arterial blood flow
    • 4) Diuresis
    • 5) Hyperglycemia

    These things are all clinical manifestations of what electrolyte imbalance?
  9. What is a nursing diagnosis for hypokalemia?
    Risk for injury.
  10. What is a potential complication of hypokalemia?
    Arrhythmias are a potential complication of what potassium imbalance?
  11. What are some considerations when trying to replace potassium by IV or PO in a client with hypokalemia?
    • 1) Never push potassium IV.
    • 2) It's painful in peripheral veins
    • 3) Never give with anuric renal failure
  12. Where do you obtain calcium?
    Ingested foods is where you obtain what electrolyte?
  13. More than 99% of calcium is combined with ________ and concentraated in the skeletal system.
    More than 99% of _______ is combined with phosphorus concentraated in the skeletal system.
  14. What kind of relationship does calcium have with phosphorus?
    Calcium and _______ have an inverse relationship. When one increases the other decreases.
  15. What in our bodies are a readily available store of calcium?
    Bones are a readily available store of what elecrtrolyte?
  16. Calcium blocks _______ transport and stabilizes the cell membrane.
    ______ blocks sodium transport and stabilizes the cell membrane.
  17. Name some functions of calcium.
    • 1) Transmission of nerve impulses
    • 2) Myocardial contractions
    • 3) Blood clotting
    • 4) Formation of teeth and bone
    • 5) Muscle contractions

    These are all functions of what electrolyte?
  18. Calcium levels are controled by what? (3)
    • 1) Parathyroid hormone
    • 2) Calcitonin
    • 3) Vitamin D

    These things all help control levels of what electrolyte?
  19. Define Hypercalcemia
    High serum calcium levels (above 5.5 mEq/L)
  20. Causes of hypercalcemia.
    • 1) Hyperparathyroidism
    • 2) Malignancy
    • 3) Vitamin D overdose
    • 4) Prolonged immobilization

    These things are all causes of what electrolyte imbalance?
  21. Clinical manifestations hypercalcemia.
    • 1) Decreased memory
    • 2) Confusion
    • 3) Disorientation
    • 4) Fatigue

    These are all clinical manifestations of that electrolyte imbalance?
  22. Name some management options for hypercalcemia?
    • 1) Loop diuretics
    • 2) Hydration with isotonic saline infusion
    • 3) Syntheic calcitonin
    • 4) Mobilization ( causes calcium to be put back in the bones)

    These are all management options for what electrolyte imbalance?
  23. Potential complication with hypercalcemian.
    Arryythmias are a potential complication of what calcium imbalance?
  24. Define hypocalcemia.
    Low serum calcium levels (less than 4.5 mEq/L)
  25. Name some causes of hypocalcemia.
    • 1) Decreased production of PTH
    • 2) Acute pancreatitis
    • 3) Multiple blood transfusions( the anticoagulant in sored blood binds with the calcium)
    • 4) Alkalosis
    • 5) Decreased intake

    These are all causes of what electrolyte imbalance?
  26. Name some (6) clinical manifestations of hypocalcemia.
    • 1) Positive Trousseau's sign ( hand and wrist)
    • 2) Positive Chvostek's sign (face)
    • 3) Laryngeal stridor
    • 4) Dysphagia
    • 5) Numbness
    • 6) Tingling around the mouth or in the extremities

    These are all clinical manifestations of what electrolyte imbalance?
  27. How do you manage hypocalcemia?
    • 1) Treat the cause
    • 2) Oral or IV calcium supplements
    • 3) Treatment of pain and anxiety to prevent hyperventilation-induced repiratory alkalosis

    These are all ways to manage what electrolyte imbalance?
  28. What is the primary anion in the ICF?
    Phosphorus is the primary anion in the ____?
  29. This electrolyte is essential to the function of muscle , red blood cells, and the nervous system.
    Phosphate is essential to the function of what 3 things?
  30. Maintenance of phosphate requires adequate ______ function.
    Maintenance of what electrolyte requires adequate renal function.

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