Clin Path MT/II

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Author:
KHW
ID:
107504
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Clin Path MT/II
Updated:
2011-10-09 14:28:09
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Clin Path MT II
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Clin Path MT/II
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  1. Stress (4)
    • -Lymphopenia
    • -Neutrophilia (mature)
    • -Monocytosis (only in dog)
    • -+/- Eosinopenia (Persistent: several blood tests)
  2. Bacterial Infection (3)
    • -Neutrophilia
    • -Left Shift
    • -Increased Total Protein (Fibrinogen)
  3. Leukopenia (2)
    • Peracute Bacterial Infection
    • Gastric Torsion
    • Myeloproliferation
    • Myelodysplasia
  4. Lymphopenia (6)
    • Glucocorticoid effect
    • Some viruses, i.e. K9 Distemper, Parvo, ICH
    • Drugs, i.e. immunosuppressants, toxins, radiation
    • Protein-losing enteropathy, destruction of afferent lymph ducts, intestinal granulomas
    • Chylothorax, Chlyoperitoneum
    • Congenital Lymphocyte deficiencies, i.e. SCID
  5. Neutropenia (8)
    • Dysgranulopoeisis (Myelodysplasia)
    • Drugs (Estrogen toxicity)
    • Viral infections (FIV, BVD, Parvo)
    • Chediak-Higashi syndrome
    • Overwhelming infections
    • Bracken fern
    • Shock – shift from circulating to marginated pool
    • Some immune-mediated disorders
  6. Eosinopenia, Basopenia, Monocytopenia
    • May be negligible in health, esp. basophils
    • Preferably used if persistently low
  7. Eosinopenia
    sometimes w/ long-term glucocorticoid therapy
  8. Leukocytosis (7)
    • -may occur after inflammation or necrosis in any spp
    • -can occur in the absence of inflammation
    • -Comparable leukocytosis is of greater significance in the horse than in the dog
    • -Leukocytosis is not as common in the cow
    • -Neoplasia (w/ many immature cells)
    • -w/ RBC regeneration
    • -some Myeloproliferative and Immune-mediated Dz
  9. Neutrophilia (4)
    • Physiological: Fear, Excitement, Strenuous exercise (also causes Lymphocytosis)
    • Stress/Glucocorticoids
    • Hyperadrenocorticism
    • Inflammation
  10. Regenerative Left Shift
    some immune-mediated disorders
  11. Degenerative Left Shift
    severe dz w/ systemic toxemia
  12. Eosinophilia (8)
    • Non-specific Response
    • Parasites, especially nematodes and flukes (Absence of eosinophilia does not rule out parasites)
    • Tumors
    • Immune-Mediated (Auto-Immune)
    • Hypersensitivity rxns (mainly IgE mediated), i.e. Fel Asthma, Flea Bite Dermatitis
    • Inflamm of organs w/ numerous mast cells, e.g. skin
    • Rarely in Mast Cell Tumor
    • Eosinophilic Myositis?; Eosiniphilic Sarcoma
    • Addison’s Dz?
  13. Basophilia (5)
    • Ig-E mediated Disorders
    • Usually accompanies eosinophilia
    • May occur with Mast Cell Tumor
    • Basophilic Leukemia
    • Hypothyroidism?
  14. Monocytosis (4)
    • May be with Inflammation, Stress (esp. in dogs), Hyperadrenocorticism
    • Usually Chronic Inflammation, but sometimes w/ Acute Inflammation;
    • Granulomatous Inflammation
    • Monocytic/Myelomonocytic Sarcomas (high levels of monoblasts in circulation)
    • Necrosis
  15. Lymphocytosis (6)
    • Apparent, i.e. neutropenia
    • Physiological: Age (some spp, higher in young animals); Increased mm contractions, fear, excitement.
    • Hypoadrenocorticism
    • Lymphocytic leukemias
    • Chronic inflamm conds
    • Foreign antigens
  16. Chronic Inflammation (4)
    • Increased Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
    • Hyperproteinemia/Hyperglobulinemia
    • Leukocytosis: Neutrophilia, Left Shift, Monocytosis
    • Nonregenerative Anemia
  17. New Methylene Blue stain (2)
    • Reticulocytes
    • Heinz bodies
  18. Erythropoeisis/RBC regeneration (2)
    • Polychromasia, Anisocytosis, possibly basophilic stippling, nRBCs, Howell-Jolly bodies
    • Macrocytic Hypochromic
  19. Long-term Glucocorticoid (Cortisol) Therapy (6)
    • Howell-Jolly bodies
    • Neutrophilia
    • Lymphopenia
    • Monocytosis SAME CORTISOL EFFECT W/ STRESS
    • Eosinopenia
    • Hypersegmentation (inhibits migration of neutrophils → prolonged transit time in blood)
  20. Iron-Deficient Anemia (2)
    • Microcytic Hypochromic
    • Leptocytes
  21. Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia (3)
    • Spherocytes
    • Agglutination
    • RBC regeneration
    • Extravascular Hemolysis
    • Infection, i.e. Ehrlichia, Mycoplasma hemocanis
    • Neoplasia
    • Idiopathic (AIHA)
    • Pure red cell aplasia → Dyshemopoietic
    • *Coomb’s test
  22. Parvo (3)
    • Dyshemopoietic Anemia
    • Neutropenia (IN THE ABSENCE OF THROMBOCYTOPENIA)
    • Lymphopenia
  23. Ehrlichiosis (6)
    • Dyshemopoietic Anemia/Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia
    • Decreased weight
    • Lethargy
    • Fever
    • Increased Globulin
    • Thrombocytopenia → Bleeding tendencies, esp. epistaxis
  24. Estrogen Toxicity (4)
    • Dyshemopoietic Anemia
    • Neutropenia
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • +/- Lymphopenia
  25. Hypoadrenocorticism (3)
    • Dyshemopoietic Anemia
    • Lymphocytosis
    • +/- Eosinophilia
  26. FeLV, FIV (4)
    • -Dyshemopoietic Anemia
    • -Lymphoproliferative Dz
    • -Neutropenia
    • -Thrombocytopenia

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