Psych Exam 2

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Psych Exam 2
2011-10-09 18:09:24
Abnormal psych

Abnormal psychology test 2
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  1. Anesthesia
    An impairment or loss of sensation, usually of touch but sometimes of other senses, that is often part of conversaion disorder/
  2. Blindsight
    conversion disorder wherein patients have suffered lesions in the visual cortex and report themselves blind but can perform well on some specific vision tests.
  3. Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    A somatoform disorder marked by preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance-- for example, facial wrinkles or excess facial or body hair.
  4. Conversion Disorder
    A somatoform disorder in which sensory or motor function is impaired, even though there is no detectable nuerological explanation for the deficits.
  5. Depersonalization Disorder
    A dissociative disorder in which the individual feels unreal and estranged from the self and surroundings enough to disrupt functioning. People with this disorder may feel that their extremities have changed in size or that they are watchign themselves from a distance.
  6. Dissociation
    A process whereby a group of mental processes is split off from the main stream of consciousness, or behavior loses its relationship with the rest of the personality.
  7. Dissociative Amnesia
    A dissociative disorder in which the person suddenly becomes unable to recall important personal information to an extent that cannot be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
  8. Dissociative Disorders
    Disorders in which the normal integration of consciousness, memory, or identity is suddenly and temporarily altered, include dissociative amnesia , disociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality), and depersonalization disorder.
  9. Dissociative Fuge
    Disorder in which the person experiences total amnesia, moves, and establishes a new identity.
  10. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
    A rare dissociaitve disorder (formeerly called multiple personality disorder, or MPD) in which two or more fairly distinct and seperate personalities are present within the same individual, each with his or her own memories, relationships, and behavior patterns, with only one of them dominant at any given time.
  11. Explicit Memory
    Memory involving the conscious recall of experiences; the area of deficits typically seen in dissociative amnesia. Compare with implicit memory.
  12. Factitious Disorder
    Disorder in which the individuals physical or or psychological symptoms appear under voluntary controland are adopted merely to assume the role of a sick person; called factitious disorder by proxy or Muchausen syndrome when a parent produces a physical illness in a child.
  13. Hypochondriasis
    A somatoform disorder in which the person, misinterpreting rather ordinary physical sensations, is preoccuppied with fears of having a serious disease.
  14. Implicit Memory
    Memory that underlies behavior but is based on experiences that cannot be consciously recalled; typically not compromised in cases of dissociative amnesia. Compare explicit memory.
  15. La belle indifference
    The blase attitude people with conversion disorder have toward their symptoms.
  16. Malingering
    Faking a physical or psychological incapacity in order to avoid a responsibility or gain an end, where the goal is readily recognized from the individual's circumstances distinct from conversion disorder, in which the incapacity is assumed to be beyond voluntary control.
  17. Pain Disorder
    A somatoform disorder in which the person complains of severe and prolonged pain that is not fully explainable by organic pathology and is thus assumed to be caused or intensified by psychological factors.
  18. Posttraumatic Model of DID
    Etiological model of DID that assumes the condition begins in childhood as a result of severe physical or sexual abuse. Compare sociocognitive model.
  19. Sociocognitive Model of DID
    etiological model of DID that considers the condition to be the result of learning to enact social roles, though not through conscious deception, but in response to suggestion. Compare post traumatic model of DID.
  20. Somatization Disorder
    A somatoform disorder, once called Briquet's Syndrome, in which the person continually seeks medical help for recurrent and multiple physical symptoms that have no discoverable physical cause, despite a complicated medical history that is dramatically presented. Compare hypochondriasis.
  21. Somatoform Disorders
    Disorders in which symptoms suggest a physical problem but have no known physiological cause; believed to be linked to psychological conflicts and needs but not voluntarily assumed.

    • Somatization Disorder
    • Conversion Disorder
    • Pain Disorder
    • Hypochondriasis
  22. AIDS (Acquired Immuno Defficiency Syndrome)
    A fatal disease trasmitted by transfer of the human immuno defficiency virus, usually during sexual relations or by using needles previously infected by an HIV positive person. It compromises the immune system to such a degree that the person ultimately dies from one of any number of infections.
  23. Allostatic Load
    The physiological burden of high levels of stress hormones such as cortisol may lead susceptibility because of altered immune system functioning.
  24. Anger-in Theory
    The view that psychophysiological disorders, such as essential hypertension, arise from a person's not experessing anger or resentment
  25. Angina Pectoris
    Chest pains caused by insufficient supply of blood and thus oxygen to the heart.
  26. Asthma
    A disorder characterized by a narrowing of airways and an increased secretion of mucus, often causing extremely labored and wheezy breathing
  27. Behavioral Medicine
    An interdisciplinary field concerned with integrating knowledge from medicine and behavioral science to udnerstand health and illness and to prevent as well as treat psychophysiological disorders and other illnesses in which a person's psyche plays a role. See also, health psychology
  28. Cardiovascular Disorders
    Medical problems involving the heart and the blood circulation system such as hypertension and CHD
  29. Coping
    How people try to deal with problems, in particular the typically negative emotions illicted by stress, usually includes problem focused, emotion focused, and avoidance actions and efforts
  30. Coronary Heart Disease
    See Angina Pectoris and Myocardial Infarction
  31. Cytokines
    Immune system molecules released by actived macrophages whihc help initiate such bodily responses to infection as fatigue, fever, and activation of the HPA axis.
  32. Essential Hypertension
    A disorder characterized by high blood pressure that cannot be traced to an organic cause, over time causes degeneration of small arteries, enlargement of the heart, and kidney damage.
  33. Functional Social Support
    Quality of a person's relationships, for example a good versus distressed marriage. Compare structural social support
  34. Health Psychology
    A branch of psychology dealing with the role of psychological factors in health and illness. See also behavioral medicine.
  35. Interleuken-6 (IL-6)
    A proinflammatory cytokine. Elevated levels can result from stress as well as infection and have been linked to numerous diseases in older adults
  36. Metabolic Syndrome (Of CHD)
    Combination of particular risk factors - abdominal obeisity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, low HDL cholestrerol, and heightened inflammation - disposing to onset of coronary heart disease
  37. Myocardial Infarction
    Heart attack in which the blood and oxygen supply is reduced so much that heart muscles are damaged.
  38. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition
    A diagnosis in DSM-IV-TR that a physical illness is caused in part or exacerbated by physcological stress
  39. Psychoneuroimmunology
    Field that studies how psychological factors (especially stressors) impact the immune system (adversely).
  40. Stress Management
    A range of psychological procedures that help people control and reduce their stress or anxiety
  41. Structural Social Support
    A person's network of social relationships, for example number of friends. Compare functional social support
  42. Type A Behavior Pattern
    One or two contrasting psychological patterns revealed through studies seeking the cause of CHD. Type A people are competitive, rushed, hostile, and overcommitted to their work, and are believed to be at heightened risk for heart disease. Type B people are more relaxed and relatively free of pressure.
  43. Altruistic Suicide
    As defined by Durkheim, self-annihilation that the person feels wil serve a social purpose, such as the self immolations practiced by Buddhist monks during the Vietnam War.
  44. Amygdala
    A sub cotrical structure of the temporal lobe involved in attention to emotionally salient stimuli and memory of emotionally relevent events.
  45. Anomic Suicide
    As defined by Durkeim, self annhilation triggored by a person's inability to cope with sudden and unfavorable change in a social situation.
  46. Anterior Singulate
    In the subcortical region of the brain the anterior portion of the singulate gyrus stretching about the corpus callosum.
  47. Attribution
    The explanation a person has to why an event or behavior has occured.
  48. Attibutional Style
    A person's relatively consistant approach to attribution, for example a consistant attribution to negative life events to internal, stable, and global causes is thoguh to dispose to depression
  49. Behaviorial Activation (BA) Therapy
    Clinical approach to depression that seeks to increase partipation in positvely reinforcing activities.
  50. Behaviorial Couples Therapy
    Clinical approach to depression in which a couple works to improve communication and satisfaction. More likely to relieve relationship distress than individual cognitive therapy.
  51. Bi-Polar I Disorder
    A diagnosis defined on the basis of atleast one lifetime episode of mania. Most people with this disorder also experience episodes of major depression.
  52. Bi-Polar II Disoder
    A form of bi-polar disoder diagnosed in those who have experienced atleast one major depressive episode and atleast one episode of hypomania.
  53. Catatonic Features
    Immobility or excessive and peculiar physical movements characterizing a subtype of episodes of major depressive disorder or mania.
  54. Cognitive Biasis
    Tendencies to perceieve events ina negative manner. For example, by attending to or remembering negative information more than positive information. Hypothezied to be driven by underlying negative schemata.
  55. Cognitive Therapy
    Any behavior therapy procedure that attempts to alter the manner in which a client thinks about life so that he or she changes overt bheavior and emotions.
  56. Cortisol
    A stress hormone secreted by the adrenal cortises helps the body prepare to face threats
  57. Cushing's Syndrome
    And endocrine disorder usually affecting young women produced by oversecretion of cotrisone and marked by mood swings, irritability, agitation, and physical disfigurement.
  58. Cyclothimic Disorder
    A form of bipolar disorder characterized by swings between elation and depression over at least a two year period, but with moods not so severe as manic or major depressive episode.
  59. Dopamine
    Central nervous system neruotransmitter a catecholamine that is also a precursor of norepinephrin and apparently figures in schizophrenia and parkinson's disease
  60. Dysthymic Disorder
    Depressive symptoms that last for at least two years but do not meet criteria for the diagnosis of MDD
  61. Egotistic Suicide
    As defined by Durkheim, self annihilation commited because the individual feels extreme alienation from others and from society
  62. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
    A treament that produces a convulsion by passing electric surrent through the brain. Despite public concerns about this treatment, it can be useful alleviating profound depression.
  63. Episodic Disorder
    A condition, such as MDD, whose symptoms dissipate, but that tends to recur.
  64. Expressed Emotion (EE)
    Hostility, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement, directed from other people toward the patient, usually within the family
  65. Extraversion
    Personality trait associated with frequent experiences of positive effect and social engagement.
  66. Family Focus Treatment (FFT)
    With the goal of reducing the likelihood of relapse of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, treatment that aims to educate the person's family about illness, enhance communication, and develop problem solving skills.
  67. Flight of Ideas
    A symptom of mania that involves a rapid shift in conversation from one subject to another, with only superficial associative connections
  68. G-proteins
    Guanine nucelotide binding proteins that serve to modulate activity within the post-synaptice cell, are implicated in mania and depression, and are possibly the intracellular target of lithium
  69. Hippocampus
    In the subcortical region of the brain, the long tube-like structure that stretches from the septal area into the temporal lobe
  70. Hopelessness Theory
    Cognitive theory of depression that began with learned helplessness theory, was modified to incorporate attributions, and has been modified again to emphasize hoplessness - an expectation that desirable outcomes will not occur, and that no available responses can change the situation.
  71. HPA-Axis
    The neuroendocrine conenctions among hypothalimus pituitary gland and adrenal cortex central to the body's response to stress.
  72. Hypomania
    An extremely happy or irritable mood accompanied by symptoms like increased energy and decreased need for sleep but without the significant functional impairement associated with mania
  73. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)
    A short-term, here and now focus psychological treatment, initially developed for depression and influenced by the psychodynamic emphasis on relationships
  74. Learned Helplessness Theory
    The theory of depression etiology that individuals, through unpleasant experiences and traumas, against which their efforts were ineffective, acquire passivity and a sense of being unable to act and to control their lives
  75. Lithium
    A drug useful in treating both mania and depression in bipolar disorder
  76. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
    A disorder of individuals who have experienced episodes of depression, but not mania. Depression episodes are marked by sadness or loss of pleasure, accompanied by symptoms such as feelings of worthlessness and guilt, withdrawal from others, loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and either lethargy or agitation.
  77. Mania
    Intense elation or irritability accompanied by symptoms such as excessive talkativeness, rapid thoughts, distractability, grandiose plans, heightened activity, and insensitivity to the negative consequences of actions
  78. Melancholic
    Subtype of MDD in which the individual is unable to feel better, even momentarily, when something good happens, regularly feels worse in the morning and awakens early, and suffers a deepening of other symptoms of depression.
  79. Mindfullness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)
    Recent adaptation of cognitive therapy/restructuring that focuses on relapse prevention after successful treatment for recurrent episodes of major depression aims to decenter the person's perspective in order to break the cycle between sadness and thinking patterns
  80. Mixed Episodes
    Bipolar episodes characterized by severe symptoms of both mania and depression within the same week
  81. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAO)
    A group of antidepressant drugs that prevent the enxyme monoamine oxidase from deactivating catecholamines and indolamines
  82. Mood Disorders
    Disorders, such as depressive disorder or mania, in which there are disabling distrubances in emotion
  83. Negative Affect
    Constellation of negative emotions that is elevated in both anxiety and depression
  84. Negative Triad
    Inbeck's theory of depression. A person's negative views of the self, the world, and the future in a reciprocal causal relationship with pessimistic assumptioms (schemata) and cognitive biases such as selective abstraction
  85. Neuroticism
    The tendency to react to events with greater than average negative affect; a strong predictor of onset of anxiety disorders and depression
  86. Norepinephrine
    A catecholamine neruotransmitter of the CNS, disturbances in the tracts of which apparently figure in depression and mania. It is also a SNS neurotransmitter, a hormone released in addition to epinephrine and similar in action and a strong vasoconstrictor
  87. Positive Affect
    A constellation of particular positive emotions, such as excitement, that also reflect a general engagement with the environment, dampened in depression but no in anxiety
  88. Postpartum Onset
    Onset within four weeks of postpartum, characterizing a subtype of episodes of MDD or mania
  89. Prefrontal Cortex
    The region of the frontal lobe of the brain that helps maintain an image of threats and rewards faced as well as maitnain focus and plan relevant to those threats and rewards
  90. Psychoeducational Approaches
    Especially with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the component of treatment that helps people learn about symptoms, expected time course, triggers for symptoms, and treatment strategies
  91. Psychotic Features
    Delusions or hallucinations characterizing a subtpye of episodes of MDD or mania, also used to refer to positive symptoms of schizphrenia
  92. Rpaid Cycling
    Term applied to bipolar disorders if the person has experienced at least four episodes within the past year
  93. Reward System
    System of brain structures involved in the motivation to pursue rewards believed to be involved in depression, mania, schizophrenia, and substance dependance
  94. Schema
    A mental structure for organizing information about the world. Plural, schemata
  95. Seasonal Affective Disorder
  96. Second Messengers
    Intracellular molcules whose levels are increased by sustained activity of neurotransmitters. For example, receptors, and which affect the resting states of ion channels or regulate gene expression of receptor molecules, thus modulating the cell's sensitivity to neruotransmitters.
  97. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRIs)
    Any of various drugs that inhibit the pre-synaptice reuptake of the neruotransmitter serotonin, thereby prolonging its effects on postsynaptic neurons.
  98. Serotonin
    A neurotransmitter of the CNS whose disturbances apparently figure in depression
  99. Somatic Arousal
    Sweaty palms, fast heartrate, etc., expected to increase in anxiety but depression.
  100. Suicide
    The intentional taking of one's own life
  101. Suicide Prevention Centers
    Staffed primarily by paraprofessionals who are trained to be empathetic and to encourage suicidal callers - assumed to be ambivalent - to consider nondestructive ways of dealing with what is bothering them
  102. Tricyclic Antidepressants
    A group of antidepressants with molecular structures characterized by three fused rings; interfere with the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin
  103. Tryptophan
    Amino acid that is the major precursor of serotonin; experimental depletion has foudn that a lowered serotonin level causes temporary depressive synmptoms in people with a personal or family history of depression.