BIOL 223 Chapter 9

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christophertkennedy
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107527
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BIOL 223 Chapter 9
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2011-10-09 17:13:57
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anatomy physiology articulations BIOL 223
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Study Cards for Chapter 9 BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. List the three classes of joint function discussed in class.
    • synarthrosis
    • amphiarthrosis
    • diarthrosis
  2. When considering articulating joints, there is a trade-off between motion and:
    stability
  3. How much movement will occur in a synarthrosis?
    none, the are immovable joints
  4. How moveable is a diarthrosis?
    very moveable
  5. Is am amphiarthrosis moveable?
    yes, but in a limited manner
  6. List two examples of synarthrosis given in class.
    • epiphyseal plate
    • sternocostal joints
  7. List the two examples of amphiarthrosis given in class.
    • pubic symphisis
    • intervertebral discs
  8. List the three structural classifications of joints discussed in class.
    • fibrous
    • cartilagenous
    • synovial
  9. What will connect bones in a fibrous joint?
    dense irregular connective tissue
  10. Fibrous and cartilagenous joints do not have a:
    synovial cavity
  11. Bones articulating in a cartilagenous joint will be connected by:
    cartilage
  12. What tissue unites the bones in a synovial joint?
    dense irregular connective tissue
  13. Which of the three structural classifications of joints allow for the greatest range of motion?
    synovial joints
  14. What are suture joints and where are they located?
    small ligaments that connect two bones together that are found between the flat bones of the skull
  15. What is a fontanel?
    fibrous joints in the infant skull that allow for growth, compression, and will develop into suture lines
  16. How are the bones in a syndesmosis linked?
    with dense connective tissue
  17. List two locations in the human body where you will find a syndesmosis.
    • between the radius and ulna
    • between the tibia and fibula
  18. True or False: A syndesmosis will be amphiarthrotic.
    True
  19. What type of tissue connects the bones is a synchondrosis?
    hyaline cartilage
  20. List the two examples of a synchondrosis given in class.
    • epiphyseal plate
    • sternocostal joints
  21. True or False: A synchodrosis will be diarthrotic.
    False - a synchondrosis will be an immoveable synarthrosis
  22. How are the bones articulated by a symphysis connected?
    with fibrocartilage
  23. Where in the human body do you find a symphysis?
    • connecting the pubis bones (pubic symphysis)
    • between the vertebrae (intervertebral discs)
  24. A symphysis will be an _______ joint.
    amphiarthrotic
  25. How does a syntosis form?
    hyaline cartilage that becomes bone
  26. List the two examples given in class of a syntosis in the human body.
    • epiphyseal line in adults
    • metopic suture in infants
  27. List the five structural components of a synovial joint discussed in class.
    • articular cartilage
    • joint capsule
    • synovial fluid
    • bursae
    • meniscus
  28. What is the function of articular cartilage in a synovial joint.
    to reduce friction between articulating bones
  29. The layers of fibrous tissue that surround the point of articulation in a synovial joint is known as the:
    joint capsule
  30. What are the two functions of synovial fluid discussed in class?
    • lubricate the joint
    • circulate ions, nutrients, and oxygen
  31. What is a bursae?
    small fluid filled pocket that emptied upon compression
  32. What are menisci?
    pads of cartilage located between the bones of a synovial joint used for cushioning
  33. Two flat surfaces sliding past each other is what type of movement?
    gliding
  34. Rotation towards the midline is known as:
    medial rotation
  35. Rotation away from the midline is known as:
    lateral rotation
  36. Decreasing the angle between two bones is known as:
    flexion
  37. Increasing the angle between two bones is known as:
    extension
  38. Extension of a joint beyond anatomical position is known as:
    hyperextension
  39. Movement of a joint away from the midline is known as:
    abduction
  40. Movement of a joint towards the midline is known as:
    adduction
  41. Rotating the palm so that the thumb is oriented towards the midline is called:
    pronation
  42. Rotating the palm to the thumb is oriented away from the midline is called:
    supination
  43. Rotating the foot so that the sole faces the midline is called:
    inversion
  44. Rotating the foot so that the sole faces away from the midline is called:
    eversion
  45. Lifting the toes of the foot is called:
    dorsiflexion
  46. Lifting the heel of the foot is called:
    plantar flexion
  47. A superior movement of a body part is known as:
    elevation
  48. An inferior movement of a body part is known as:
    depression
  49. The anterior movement of a body part is known as:
    protraction
  50. The posterior movement of a body part is known as:
    retraction
  51. A plane joint facilitates what kind of movement?
    gliding
  52. List the three places on the human body discussed in class where plane joints can be found.
    • between carpals
    • between tarsals
    • between vertebrae
  53. A joint that contains a circular depressed area on one bone and a rounded articulation on the other, and allows for angular movement is known as a:
    hinge joint
  54. List the four locations for a hinge joint discussed in class.
    • knee
    • elbow
    • ankle
    • interphalangeal joints
  55. Describe a saddle joint.
    two saddle shaped surfaces at a right angle to each other
  56. Where is the only place a saddle joint can be found in the human body?
    between the trapezium and metacarpal 1
  57. Which type of joint allows for oppositional thumb movement?
    saddle joint
  58. A bone cylinder wrapped in connective tissue or bone and allows for rotation is known as a:
    pivot joint
  59. List the two locations in the human body given in class for a pivot joint.
    • proximal articulation of the radius and ulna
    • articulation between the atlas and axis
  60. The joint that provides the greatest range of motion is the:
    ball and socket joint
  61. Where in the human body can you find ball and socket joints?
    • shoulders
    • hips
  62. True or False: Ball and socket joints are the most stable of the joints.
    False - they are the least stable
  63. A modified "ball and socket" joint that has oval shaped articulation points is an:
    ellipsoid joint
  64. List the two locations given in class for ellipsoid joints.
    • between the metacarpals and phalanges
    • between the atlas and occipital condyles
  65. Define circumduction.
    moving the distal end of a limb in a circular motion

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