The intensity, direction and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal.
· Theory X
The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
· Theory Y
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and
will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the
· Intrinsic Motivators
A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.
· Extrinsic Motivators
Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and tangible rewards.
· Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
A hierarchy of 5 needs:
Physiological; In which, as each need is substantially satisfied the next need becomes dominant.
· ERG Theory
A theory that posits 3 groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
· Motivation-hygiene theory
A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction.
· McClelland's theory of needs
Achievement, power and affiliation are 3 important needs that help explain motivation.
· need for achievement
The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
· need for power
The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
· need for affiliation
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships..
· Expectancy theory
The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them.
The belief that effort is related to performance.
The belief that performance is related to rewards
The value or importance an individual places on a reward.
What an individual is trying to accomplish
Management by Objectives (MBO)
An approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goalsis periodically reviewed and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress
Individuals compare their job input and output with those of others, and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities
The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from a manager.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Offering Extrinsic rewards (for example, pay) for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person's motivation
The degree to which a person's reasons for pursuing a goal is consistent with the person's interests and core values.
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward and prevents a punishment.
A desired behavior is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated.
A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to mske the behavior worth repeating, but not everytime it is demonstrated