OB - Chapter 4

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OB - Chapter 4
2011-10-09 16:03:51

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  1. · Motivation
    The intensity, direction and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal.
  2. · Theory X
    The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
  3. · Theory Y
    • The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and
    • will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the
    • objectives
  4. · Intrinsic Motivators
    A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.
  5. · Extrinsic Motivators
    Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and tangible rewards.
  6. · Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    • A hierarchy of 5 needs:
    • Self-actualization
    • Esteem
    • Social
    • Safety
    • Physiological; In which, as each need is substantially satisfied the next need becomes dominant.
  7. · ERG Theory
    A theory that posits 3 groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
  8. · Motivation-hygiene theory
    A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction.
  9. · McClelland's theory of needs
    Achievement, power and affiliation are 3 important needs that help explain motivation.
  10. · need for achievement
    The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
  11. · need for power
    The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
  12. · need for affiliation
    The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships..
  13. · Expectancy theory
    The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them.
  14. Expectancy
    The belief that effort is related to performance.
  15. Instrumentality
    The belief that performance is related to rewards
  16. Valence
    The value or importance an individual places on a reward.
  17. goal
    What an individual is trying to accomplish
  18. Management by Objectives (MBO)
    An approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goalsis periodically reviewed and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress
  19. Equity Theory
    Individuals compare their job input and output with those of others, and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities
  20. Distributive justice
    The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
  21. Organizational Justice
    An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice
  22. Procedural justice
    The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
  23. Interactional Justice
    The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from a manager.
  24. Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    Offering Extrinsic rewards (for example, pay) for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person's motivation
  25. Self-concordance
    The degree to which a person's reasons for pursuing a goal is consistent with the person's interests and core values.
  26. Operant Conditioning
    A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward and prevents a punishment.
  27. Continuos Reinforcement
    A desired behavior is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated.
  28. Intermittent Reinforcement
    A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to mske the behavior worth repeating, but not everytime it is demonstrated
  29. Fixed-interval schedule
    The reward is given at fixed time intervals
  30. Variable-interval schedule
    The reward is given at variable time intervals
  31. Fixed ratio schedule
    The reward is given at fixed amount of output
  32. Variable ratio schedule
    The reward is given at variable amounts of output