Winemaking Lecture

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Author:
mlm8wd
ID:
107538
Filename:
Winemaking Lecture
Updated:
2011-10-09 16:21:10
Tags:
Winemaking Wine Tasting
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Description:
Wine Tasting Test 2
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  1. Fermentable sugars in grapes
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
  2. Organic acids in grapes
    • tartaric acid
    • malic acid
  3. Attempt to keep grapes _______ when picking
    cool
  4. Sensory parameters for picking grapes
    • Color & texture
    • Pulp--> gummy bear texture = not ripe
    • Skins-->tightwad = not ripe, astringency
  5. Detection of astringency
    • feels as if tongue has become raspy
    • tongue tissues have tightened up
    • acidity and bitterness
  6. Science of Astrigency
    • Saliva's viscocity reduced
    • Salivary glands constricted
    • Astringents fix to mucous tissues, hardening them (lamination)
  7. Chemical Parameters for Picking Grapes
    • Brix: measure of soluble solids (sugars)
    • pH: 3.2-3.5
  8. Optimum Harvest for Still White Wine
    • 10-13% alcohol
    • 21-25 Brix units
    • Acidity, varietal character, pleasantly tart
  9. Optimum Harvest for Still Red Wine
    • 11-13% alcohol (except CA-->14-15%)
    • 22-24 Brix units
    • desired color
  10. Wine critic who drives up alchohol content in CA wines
    Robert Parker
  11. Optimum Harvest for Still Dessert Wine
    • fortified to 17-22% alcohol
    • 23-26 Brix units
    • White wine-->amber color
    • Red wine-->deep, inky red
  12. Optimum Harvst for Sparkling Wine (first fermentation)
    • 10% alcohol
    • 17-29 Brix units
    • high acidity, low varietal character
    • pick grapes when not quite ripe
  13. Acid levels _____ as grapes ripen
    decrease
  14. Acidity Adjustment Regulations
    • Europe: may add sugar, not acid
    • CA: may add acid, not sugar
    • Eastern and Midwest US: may add sugar and/or acid as needed
  15. Crushing Grapes
    • 1) Destem
    • 2)Crush
    • Result: "must"
    • Add SO2 to control undesirable microorganisms
  16. Pressing to Make WHITE Wines
    • Occurs BEFORE fermentation of must
    • Skins and seeds ("pomace") removed
    • Press
    • Free run: juice without pressing (highest sugar, lowest acid and tannin)
  17. Pressing to Make RED Wines
    occurs AFTER fermentation of the must
  18. Yeasts
    • Phylum Ascomycota
    • Capable of fermenting carbohydrates into alcohol and CO2
  19. Wild Yeasts
    • SO2 sensitive
    • Not as alchohol tolerant
  20. Cultured Yeasts
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Typically SO2 tolerant
    • Alcohol tolerant
  21. Alcohol Fermentation Chemical Formula
    1 Glucose ----> 2 EtOH + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP + heat
  22. Cap Formation
    • Red wines
    • CO2 from fermentation pushes skins up to top of tan
    • Color extracted from cap to make red color of wine
  23. Cap Color Extraction Methods
    • Rotary Tank
    • Punch Down
    • Pumping Over
  24. Aged on Lees:
    yeast hulls and other stuff left in bins to ferment ("adds character")
  25. Malolactic Fermentation
    • Most reds, only some white (Chardonnay)
    • Reduces malic acid (--->lactic acid) to take sharpness out
  26. Cold Stability
    • both reds and whites
    • prevents tartaric acid crystals from forming
  27. Brettanomyces (yeast)
    barnyard aroma and flavor in wine

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