Sparkling Wine Production

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Sparkling Wine Production
2011-10-09 16:38:12
Winemaking Wine Tasting

Wine Tasting Exam 2
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  1. Methods of Sparkling Wine Production
    • 1. Methode Champenoise (AKA Traditional Method)
    • 2. Charmat Method
    • 3. Artificial Carbonation
  2. "Father of Champagne"
    Dom Perignon
  3. 3 Grapes of Traditional Method (only REAL Champagnes)
    • Chardonnay
    • Pinot noir
    • Pinot mennier
  4. Sparkling WINES Made Using Traditional Method
    • Chardonel (MO)
    • Pinot blanc (CA)
  5. Cuvee:
    blend of wines (up to 40) from previous years for consistency in product from year to year
  6. Making Bubbles
    • Put cuvee into bottles
    • add "liqueur de tirage" (contains yeasts that ferment cuvee and release CO2)
  7. Secondary Fermentation
    • Cap with metal closure
    • Long, slow fermentation
    • cool temps
    • results in high CO2 pressures
  8. Aging with the yeast
    Bottles stored in horizontal position for 2-4 years (breakdown of yeasts releasing flavor components-"autolysis")
  9. Collecting the Yeast--Remuage or Riddling
    • slowly turn and tilt bottle to get yeast debris into neck of bottle
    • 1-12 weeks to get bottles standing on their heads
  10. Yeast Removal--Degorgement
    • Wine chilled to below freezing
    • bottle turned up, opened-->CO2 expelling yeasts and tartrate crystals
    • Material lost made up with "dosage"-mixture of cuvee, sugar, maybe brandy
  11. Aging
    • if NV, drink soon
    • if Vintaged, may store 5-10 years from purchase date
  12. Characteristics of fine sparkling wine: Mousse
    creamy, long-lived, small bubbles
  13. Characteristics of fine sparkling wine: Color
    very light, straw yellow to salmon color
  14. Characteristics of fine sparkling wine: Aroma
    spicy, floral, and fruity aromas
  15. Characteristics of fine sparkling wine: Bouquet
    yeasty, creamy, caramel, and nutty flavors characterize best sparkling wines
  16. Charmat Process
    • Single Fermentation in pressurized tank (bulk process)
    • Product = very fruity sparkling wines
    • Lower quality and less expensive than Traditional Method
  17. Artificial Carbonation
    • Same process as production of soft drinks
    • Almost always CHEAP WINES
  18. Famous Sparkling Wines: Champagne
  19. Famous Sparkling Wines: Cremant
    France, outside of Champagne region
  20. Famous Sparkling Wines: Sekt
    Austria and Germany
  21. Famous Sparkling Wines: Cava
    Spain (Catalonia)
  22. Famous Sparkling Wines: Prosecco
  23. Famous Sparkling Wines: Asti Spumante
  24. Sparkling Muscats
    • Asti Spumante
    • Single fermentation, stopped early
    • Made by Charmat Process