Tissue Engineering - Lecture 3
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What are some of the requirements for bioreactors? What would make it ideal?
- In vitro environment that contains the following:
- Mechanical stimuli
- Promotes and regulates tissue development, maintenance, responses
mimics in vivo
What is the ideal bioreactor?
- An amnionic egg that contains all the requirements for the zygote to develop.
- A variation on the ideal bioreactor would be the placenta but they is more of a paraistic relationship.
What are the four functions of bioreactors?
- Spatial uniformity
- Maintains gas and nutrient levels
- Provides efficient mass transfer
- Provides appropriate physical stimuli
What are two polycarbonate bioreactor designs?
- Scaffold ring
- Integrated cell culture insert
Describe the scaffold ring bioreactor design.
Cells are grown on a scaffold ring and then transferred into the bioreactor
Describe the integrated cell insert bioreactor design.
Cells are grown on a scaffold integrated into the bioreactor housing, windows with ports are added later for flow.
What are some examples of variables that may change in scaffolds?
- Hollow tubes
- Woven or non-woven
- High porosity
- High internal surface area to volume ration
What are some methods for assessment of the scaffold?
- Light microscope
- Freeze fracture
- Atomic force microscope
What are some methods for functional assessment?
- Metabolism - glucose consuption and the resultant lactose production
- Cell damage including radiolabel incorporation
- Mechanical properties
What are some biodegradable polymers?
- Poly(L-lactic acid)
- Poly(glycolic acid)
- GAGs (HA, KS, CS)
- Polyhydroxyalanoates (PHA)
- Polycaprolactone (PCL)
What are some non-biodegradable polymers?
- Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) aka silicone
- Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
- Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)
- Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
What are some ECM additions and their associated functions? (5)
- Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) - Forms ECM gel
- Collagen - provides strength and organization
- Elastin - provides resilience or elasticity
- Fibronectin - adhesion for cells
- Laminin - adhesion to basal lamina
What is the function of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as an ECM addition?
Forms ECM gel
What is the function of collagen as an ECM addition?
Provides strength and organization
What is the function of elastin as an ECM addition?
Provides resilience or elasticity
What is the function of fibronectin as an ECM addition?
Adhesion for cells
What is the function of laminin as an ECM addition?
Adhesion to basal lamina
What are the three types of cell interactions?
- Cell to ECM
- Cell to Cell
- Cell to "factor" (growth, cytokine, chemokine....)
What are some applications of tissue engineering?
- Plastic/reconstructive surgery
- Site-specific drug delivery
- Tumor destruction
- Blood vessels
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