genetics test 2 set2

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genetics test 2 set2
2011-10-11 14:04:06

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  1. F2 gen 9:7
    when you mate the hetrozygous individual working with the trait that controlls complimentation(F1 gen)
  2. What the hint that your dealing with complimentation
    F1 are wild
  3. Epistasis
    one gene is masking the expression of a second gene
  4. Epistatic
    The gene that is hiding the expression
  5. Hydrostatic
    The gene that is being hiden
  6. Two ways epistasis can occur
    • If your epistatic gene is recessive(recessive epistasis) F2 gen 9:3:4(phenotype ratio)
    • dominant epistasis 12:3:1(phenotype ratio)
  7. Cooperation
    • when two genes interact together to produce a phenotype that neither one could of produced on its own
    • Can get 9:3:3:1 only looking at one trait and you can get 9:6:1
    • EX-Combs on chickens, or scarlet and brown eyes in fruit flies
  8. Duplicate Dominant epistasis
    • Got two genes if either one of the two genes is dominant it will hide the recessive phenotype
    • 15:1
  9. Modifier genes
    One gene will modify the expression of a second gene
  10. Type of Modifier gene
    • Suppression-first gene ungergoes a mutation you can see the mutation expressed, a second gene(modifier gene) that undergoes mutation this supresses the expression of the original mutation
    • or reversing the effect of a mutant to produce a wild type
  11. Ratio of supression
    • 15:1
    • 13:3
    • 13:3
    • 7:9
  12. Confounding factors in genetic studies
    • Maternal effect genes
    • Maternal inheritance
    • Maternal Imprinting
  13. Maternal effects genes
    • phenotype of offspring is determined by genotype of mother
    • EX-genes are transcribed in cells of mother and then RNA is translated in the zygote
  14. Maternal Inheritance genes
    • Phentype of offspring is determined by mitochondrai inherited from mother
    • EX-used to track human migration
  15. Maternal Imprinting Genes
    phenotype of offspring is determined by genotype of father because genes inherited from mother are switched off
  16. Mammals use which sexing system
    • XY
    • The two sex chromosomes are not completely homologous
    • Y is smaller then the X chromosome
    • Female is the default gender
  17. X linked gene
    a gene that is carried on the x chromosome but has no corrisponding locus on the Y chromosome
  18. Hemizygous
    only one functional copy of the gene
  19. Heterogametic
    • Male (XY) in mammals because he can produce two different gametes
    • Male is hemizygous for the X-linked gene
  20. homogametic
    Famale (XX) all her gametes are the same
  21. Y chromo im mammals determines gender because
    SRY gene (sex related Y) codes for a protien called TDF(testies determining factor) which tell the gonads in devolping embrio to become testies
  22. In female cells
    One of the X chromo becomes lyonized and is called a barr body(dosage comp)
  23. Mosaic for x-linked genes
    In one half of her body one X chromo is lyonized in the other half the other is lyonized EX- calico cat
  24. drosophilia
    • gender is determined by number of X's compared by number of autosomes(X to autosomes ratio)
    • Male is defualt gender
    • Dosage compinsation-Upregulate transcription in the male
  25. C.elagans(X:A ratio)
    • XX-hermaphrodite
    • X-male
    • Dosage comp-transcribing in the XX 1/2 the normal rate
  26. Birds and butterflies
    • ZW system
    • Male homogamete sex(ZZ)
    • female heterogamete sex(ZW)
  27. Bees and social insects
    • Male(haploid) develope from unfertilzed egg
    • Females(diploid) develope from fertilized egg, unfertile unless fed royal jelly
  28. Plants
    • Dioecious(XY or X:A system) have both female and male plant(imperfect flowers). EX-gingco tree
    • Monicious-pretty much hemphrodite(perfect flowers)
  29. X-linked
    Color blindness
  30. Y-linked
    hairy ears
  31. Sex limited autosomal traits
    • Only expressed in one sex
    • EX-males in cows only have horns
  32. Sex influenced
    • phenotype of heterozygote is determined by sex
    • EX male pattern baldness
  33. They were the first to see linkage but didnt understand what they were seeing
    • Batson and Punnett
    • Morgan explianed it later
  34. Coupling and repultion
    • Coupling-two genes have similar genotype
    • repultion-two genes one dominant one recessive
  35. How did morgan explian it
    • Reciprocal crosses
    • test crosses
  36. Moragn coined these two words
    • Parental offspring-offspring that look like original parents
    • Recombinant offspring-offspring that have a new combination of the two genes through crossing over
  37. Crosssing over(intrachromosomal recombination)
    • process of two homologous chromo exchange material
    • translocation is between non homologous chromo(interchromosomal recombination EX independent ass. of unlinked genes)
  38. meiotic recombination
    any process that produces haploid genotype that are different from the two haploid genotype that began the process
  39. Recombination freq. are caclulated from
    test crosses
  40. Molecular markers
    • gene maps
    • restriction enzymes
    • VNTR, STR
    • SNP's(single nucleotide polymorphism)
  41. Steps in gene mapping
    • How many chromosomes it has(make karyotype using colchizine)or(complimentation test)
    • determine linkage group-test crosses(1:1:1:1 independent) pedigree analysis
    • assessing linkage groups to chromo-FISH,Cy/Sr;Di/Sb
    • X was the first human chromosome mappped
  42. Mitotic crossing over
    • very rare
    • two homologous chromosome rarely line up
    • produces a reciprocal event
    • retinoblastoma is probably caused by mitotic crossing over
  43. duplicate dominant epistasis
    • If either one or both genes have a dominant allele they will mask the recessive phenotype
    • 15:1
  44. Modifier genes
    • Supression-first gene under goes a mutation and you can the mutation expressed then you have a second gene the modifier gene that undergoes a mutation, this change supresses the expression of the original mutation
    • pretty much two wrongs make a right
  45. epistasis
    genetic interaction that occurs when two seperate genes control one trait
  46. exceptional progeny
    offspring containing an incorrect number of chromo that were not excpected (bridges)
  47. Aneuploid
    contain an incorrect number of chromo, occurs because of nondisjunction or translocation
  48. hemizygous
    only one copy, one allele for a gene located on one of its sex chromo
  49. heteromorphic
    X and Y chromosomes determines gender
  50. reciprocal cross
    reversing phenotype of intrest between male and female parent from orginal cross
  51. nondidjunction(bridges)
    failure of two homologous chrom to seperate from eachother during meiosis I or failure of twoo sister chromotids to seperate from eachother durin meiosis II or during mitosis
  52. Colchicine
    disrupts connection between spindle tubules during metaphase so you can make karyotype
  53. chromosomal Abnormalities
    • Deletion
    • duplication
    • insersion
    • inversion(pericentric)(peracentric)
  54. Inrachromosomal
    two homologous chromo that exchange materila
  55. interchromosomal
    two non homologous chromo exchange material EX translocation