Sensation and Perception

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Sensation and Perception
2011-10-10 13:23:07
Psych 102

Sensation and Perception
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  1. High Energy
    Blue color, short wavelength
  2. Medium Energy
    Green color, medium wavelength
  3. Low Energy
    Red color, long wavelength
  4. Sensation and Perception
    Result of converting physical energy into meaningful signals that are consistent and stable (constancy across different situations [but not always])
  5. Sensation
    Low-level (meaning-less, bottom up), Unconscious
  6. Perception
    High-level (meaningful, top-down), Unconscious and Conscious
  7. Emmetropia
    Normal Vision
  8. Hyperopia
  9. Myopia
  10. Absorption
    Photon gets absorbed by media of different surface
  11. Refraction
    Photon angle changed one time as it passes through media
  12. Diffraction/Scatter
    Photon angle changed multiple times before going through media
  13. Reflection
    Photon gets reflected away from media
  14. Ambient Optic Array (AOA)
    the optical information available to the eye at a given point in time, consists of light coming from direct sources as well as from reflections, refractions, etc.
  15. Photoreceptors
    Cells that are sensitive to light
  16. Transduction
    Process that turns light into electrical information (neural impulses)
  17. Pinhole Eyes
    Allow only one light ray through from any given direction, Upside-down, left-right Reversed
  18. Simple Eyes
    One lens, many receptors. What humans have.
  19. Tube Eyes
    Allow only one light ray per tube, right-side up, left-right maintained, low resolution, inefficient use of space
  20. Compound Eyes
    Individual lens/receptor units (ommatidia), wide angle of view, low resolution
  21. Human Eye
    Two lenses, 130,000,000 receptors, light gets focused twice: first by cornea (most focusing power), then by lens (fine tuning). Finally, image is projected onto the retina
  22. Why are photoreceptors at the back of the eye?
    The cells that replenish the pigment epithelia are not transparent. They also need to be adjacent to the photoreceptors, so the photoreceptors must be turned around.
  23. Rods
    Only one kind, gray-scale vision, more sensitive to light, less sensitive to detail, operate in low light, located everywhere but the fovea
  24. Cones
    Three kinds of cones, color vision, less sensitive to light, more sensitive to detail, operate in high light, located predominately in the fovea
  25. Fovea
    Densely packed receptors, only cones present, blood vessels and nerves pushed away
  26. Periphery (everywhere but fovea)
    Both rods and cones, but mostly rods. Blood vessels block some light
  27. Photopic
    Only cones are active in fairly bright settings
  28. Scotopic
    Only rods are acitve in fairly dim settings
  29. Mesopic
    Both rods and cones are active in intermediate settings
  30. Candela
    Unit of measurement representing the light emitted from a single candle, human eye can see one candela at a distance of one mile away in perfect darkness
  31. Dark Adaption
    Eyes adapt to darkness and after about 10 minutes rods take over vision
  32. Foveate
    To stare directly at something
  33. Purkinje Shift
    The apparent bluish shift under low illumination. Application in media: reduce brightness, contrast, and saturation, and increase blueness
  34. Transmission
    The passing through any homogenous medium (happens in a straight line)
  35. Visual Field
    The area you can see in the world
  36. Retinal Image
    The image projected onto your retina
  37. Receptive Fields
    Area within which a cell is responsive to stimulation (the plus and minus analogy)
  38. Ganglion Receptive Fields
    Cover a two dimensional swatch of the retina, rather than a single spot, this is a region on the retina covering many photoreceptors. (anatomy: optic nerve --> Ganglion cell --> bipolar cell --> rod --> pigment epithelium --> receptive field)
  39. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)
    Center-surround receptive fields very similar to receptive field of a ganglion cell.
  40. Simple Cells (Simple Cortical)
    An orientation-sensitive cell located in primary visual cortex (V1), edge detectors or bar detectors, excitatory and inhibitory areas arranged side-by-side. Responds best to bars of a particular orientation.
  41. Compex Cells (Complex Cortical)
    In visual cortex, oriented RFs, cannot detect spots or stationary bars of light, orientation and motion sensitive, no longer dark/light sensitive, RF is large and unbounded
  42. Hypercomplex Cells (End-Stopped Cells)
    Identical to Complex Cells but also length-specific. Respond to corners, angles, or bars of a particular length moving in a particular direction.
  43. Ganglion Cell (Optic Nerve Fiber)
    Center-surround receptive field. Responds best to small spots, but will respond to other stimuli.