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4 Phyla of Fungi + general info of included organisms
- Zygomycota: Black molds, endomycorrhizal fungi, Soft rot in plants. Aseptate hyphae. Asexual sporangiospores. Sexual Zygospores (in zygosporangium).
- Ascomycota: Powdery mildews, edible morels, truffles, rot, blight, dutch elm disease. Septate hyphae. Asexual budding, conidia, and fragmentation. Sexual ascospores (in asci).
Genera of Zygomycota
- Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold): Sporangia, sporangiophores, stolons, rhizoids.
- Pilobolus crystallinus (shotgun fungus): positively phototropic, germinate in dung, sporangia “shot” to areas where herbivores eat to recomplete cycle.
Genera of Ascomycota
- Saccharomyces cerivisiae (baker’s yeast / brewer’s yeast): unicellular, reproduces primarily by budding.
- Penicillium (blue/green mold): Asexual reproduction through conidia.
- (Powdery mildews): powerdy material is conidia and assoc. hyphae. Older leaves have cleistothecia (ascoma shaped in completely enclosed circles).
- (Fleshy Ascomycetes): Tuber melanosporum (truffles), Peziza (cup fungus), Morchella (edible morel). Have apothecia (ascoma shaped as cups).
- Aspergillus niger: used to produce citric acid for sodas
- Aspergillus oryzae: used to make soy sauce/paste
- Claviceps purpurea: causes Ergot (a disease in grains). Ergotized grain contains toxic chemicals which, if eaten, can result in hallucinations, cramps, convulsions, and death.
- (Chestnut blight): responsible for killing at least 3.5 billion American chestnuts of Eastern deciduous forests
- (Dutch Elm Disease):
- Lichen: ½ fungi and ½ cyanobacteria OR algae