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  1. 4 Periods of Development
    • First-during the 1940's
    • --Nondirective Counseling
    • --Alternative to direct and interpretive approaches
    • Second-during the 1950's
    • --Client-centered therapy
    • --Empahsis on client rather than nondirective methods
    • --More phenomenological
    • --Focus on actualizing tendency
    • Third-late 50's into the 70's
    • --On Becoming a Person
    • --"becoming one's experience"
    • ---Openness to experience
    • ---A trust in one's experience
    • ---An internal locus of evaluation
    • ---Willingness to be in the process
    • Fourth- during the 80's and 90's
    • --Person-centered approach
    • --Considerable expansion to education, industry, groups, conflict-resolution
  2. Person-Centered View of Human Nature
    • At their core, humans are trustworhty and positive
    • Humans are capable of making changes and living productive, effective lives
    • Humans innately gravitate toward self-actualization
    • --Actualizing tendency
    • Give the right growth-fostering conditions, individuals strive to move forward and fulfill their creative nature.
  3. Person-Centered Therapy
    A reaction against the directive and psychoanalytic approach
  4. Person-Centered Therapy Challenges
    • The assumption that "the counselor knows best"
    • The validity of advice, suggestion, persuasion, teaching, diagnosis, and interpretation
    • The belieft that clients cannot understand and resolve their own problems without direct help
    • The focus on problems over persons
  5. Person-Centered Therapy Emphasizes:
    • Therapy as a journey shared by two fallible people
    • The person's innate striving for self-actualization
    • The personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of the therapeutic relationship
    • The counselor's creation of a permissive, "growth-promoting" climate
    • People are capable of self-directed growth if involved in a therapeutic relationship
  6. Therapeutic Goals
    • The client is to be achieving a greater degree of independence and integration
    • Focus on person, not presenting problem
    • Experience without the facade to become increasingly actualized through:
    • --Openness to experience
    • --Trust in themselves
    • --An internal source of evaluation
    • --Willingness to continue growing
    • Encouraging these characteristics is the basic goal of person of person-centered therapy.
  7. The Therapist
    • Focuses on the quality of the therapeutic relationship... being not doing
    • Provides a supportive therapeutic environment in which the client is the agent of change and healing
    • Serves as a model of a human being struggling toward greater realness
    • Is genuine, integrated, and authentic, without a false front
    • Can openly express feelings and attitudes that are present in the relationship with the client
    • Is invested in developing his or her own life experiences to deepen self-knowledge and more toward self-actualization
  8. Incongruence
    • The common state of the client
    • Difference between self perception and their experience of reality
    • Clients often seek therapy with a sense of hopelessness and are wanting someone to help them "find the way"
    • C-C is designed to help them learn to be responsible for themselves by using the relationship for greater understanding
    • The client then, in the context of this type of relationship, is the agent of change.
  9. Relationship Between Therapist and Client
    • Rogers Stated:
    • "If I can provide a certain type of relationship, the other person will discover within himself or herself the capacity to use that relationship for growth and change and personal development will occur?"
  10. Six Conditions (Necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur)
    • 1. Two persons are in psychological contact
    • 2. The first, the client, is experiencing incongruence
    • 3. The second person, the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship
    • 4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard or real caring for the client
    • 5. The therapist experiences empathy for the client's internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this to the client
    • 6. The communication to the client is, to a minimal degree, achieved.
  11. Congruence
    • Genuineness or realness in the therapy session
    • Therapist's behaviors match his or her words
  12. Unconditional Postive Regard
    • Acceptance and genuine caring about the client as a valuable person
    • Accepting clients as they presently are
    • Therapist need not approve of all client behavior
  13. Accurate Empathic Understanding
    • The ability to deeply grasp the client's subjective world
    • Helper attitudes are more important than knowledge
    • -- The therapist need not experience the situation to develop an understanding of it from the client's perspective
  14. Roger's Core Conditions for the Therapeutic Environment (Therapist)
    • Empathy
    • Unconditional Regard
    • Congruence
  15. Rogerian View of Psychotherapy Implied Therapeutic Conditions
    • Client and therapist must be in pscyhological contact
    • Client must be experiencing distress
    • Client must be willing to receive conditions offered by therapist
  16. Process of Client-Centered Psychotherapy
    • Therapy begins at first contact
    • Respect shown immediately to the client
    • Therapy's length deteremined by client
    • Quick suggestions and reassurances are avoided
  17. Application to Group Counseling
    • Therapist takes on the role of facilitator:
    • --Creates therapeutic environment
    • --Techniques are not stressed
    • --Exhibits deep trust of the group members
    • --Provides support for members
    • --Group members set the goals for the group
    • Group setting fosters an open and accepting community where members can work on self-acceptance
    • Individuals learn that they do not have to experience the process of change alone and grow from the support of group members.
  18. Person-Centered Expressive Arts Therapy
    • Various creative art forms
    • --promote healing and self-discovery
    • --are inherently healing and promote self-awareness and insight
    • Creative expression connects us to our feelings which are a source of life energy
    • --Feelings must be experienced to achieve self-awareness
    • Individuals explore new facets of the self and uncover insights that transform the, creating wholeness
    • --Discover of wholeness leads to understanding of how we relate to the outer world
    • The client's inner world and outer world become unified
  19. Conditions for Creativity
    • Acceptance of the individual
    • A non-judgmental setting
    • Empathy
    • Psychological freedom
    • Stimulating and challenging experiences
    • Individuals who have experienced unsafe creative environments "held back" and may disengage from creative processes.
    • Safe, creative environments give clients permission to be authentic and to delve deeply into their experience
  20. Limitations of the Person-Centered Approach
    • Cultural Considerations
    • --Some clients may prefer a more directive, structured treatment
    • --Individuals accustomed to indirect communication may not be comfortable with direct expression of empathy and creativity
    • --Individuals from collectivisitic cultures may disagree with the emphasis on internal locus of control
    • Does not focus on the use of specific techniques, making this treatment difficult to standardize
    • Beginning therapists may find it difficult to provide both support and challenges to clients
    • Limits of the therapist as a person may interfere with developing a genuine therapeutic relationship
  21. Client-Centered Therapy (ROGERS)
    • Language: Common Sense
    • How to Understand the Individual: Subjective Interpersonal
    • Empahsis: Purpose
    • Characterization of the Individual: Holistic
    • View of Human Nature: People can be good or bad
    • Role of Therapist: Facilitate patient's self discovery
    • View of Transference: Not central to the patient's ability to change
    • Presentation of the Therapist: A caring person who is willing to listen
  22. Psychoanalysis
    • Language: Esoteric
    • How to Understand the Individual: Objective Intrapersonal
    • Empahsis: Causality
    • Characterization of the Individual: Reductionistic
    • View of Human Nature: People are bad
    • Role of Therapist: Interpretation for the patient
    • View of Transference: Inevitable, fundamental to the change process
    • Presentation of the Therapist: Authority, teacher
  23. Client-Centered
    Behavior Changes through internal factors
  24. Behavioral
    Behavior changes through external factors
  25. Client Centered (CC) vs. REBT Differenes
    • CC greatly values therapy relationship
    • CC client-directed
    • CC accepting of patient's perceptions
    • In CC client chooses actions
    • CC therapist relates to patient at the feeling level
  26. Client-Centered (CC) vs. REBT Similiarities
    • Great optismism in the ability of people to change
    • Perception that individuals are often overly self-critical
    • Willingness to put forth great effort to help people
    • Willingness to demonstrate their methods publicly
    • Respect for science and research
Card Set
Person-Centered Therapy
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