Ch 7 Neuro

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dconhokie
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107651
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Ch 7 Neuro
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2011-10-11 20:25:10
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Neuro
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Ch 7 Neuro
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  1. anterior
    The anatomical reference meaning toward the nose or rostral.
  2. rostral
    anatomical reference meaning toward the nose or anterior.
  3. posterior
    anatomical ref. meaning toward the tail or caudal.
  4. caudal
    An anatomical reference meaning toward the tail or posterior.
  5. dorsal
    Anatomical reference meaning toward the back
  6. ventral
    anatomical reference meaning toward the belly.
  7. midline
    an invisible line that bisects the nervous system into right and left halves.
  8. medial
    anatomical ref. meaning toward the midline.
  9. lateral
    away from the midline
  10. ipsilateral
    on the SAME said of the midline.
  11. contralateral
    on the opposite side of the midline
  12. midsaggital plane
    an anatomical plane of section through the midline that is perpendicular to the ground. Divides the nervous system into left and right halves.
  13. saggital plane
    anatomical plane of section that is parallel to the midsaggital plane.
  14. horizontal plane
    anatomical plane of section that divides the nervous system into dorsal & ventral parts.
  15. coronal plane
    anatomical plane of section that divides the nervous system into anterior and posterior parts
  16. central nervous system
    The brain (including the retinas) and spinal cord.
  17. brain
    The part of the CNS contained in the skull, consisting of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem & retinas.
  18. spinal cord
    the part of the CNS in the vertebral column
  19. cerebrum
    the largest part of the forebrain; also called the telencephalon.
  20. cerebral hemispheres
    2 sides of the cerebrum, derived from the paired telencephalic vesicles.
  21. cerebellum
    A structure derived from the rhombencephalon, attached to the brain stem at the pons;

    an important movement control center.
  22. brain stem
    The diencephalon, midbrain, pons and medulla.
  23. spinal nerve
    A nerve attached to the spinal cord that innervates the body.
  24. dorsal root



      a bundle of sensory neuron axons that emerges from a spinal nerve and attaches to the dorsal side of the spinal cord.
    1. Dorsal root axons bring information into the spinal cord.




  25. ventral root
    A bundle of motor neuron axons that emerges from the ventral spinal cord, and joins sensory fibers to form a spinal nerve.

    Ventral root axons carry information AWAY from the spinal cord.
  26. peripheral nervous system
    The parts of the nervous system other than the brain and spinal cord.

    The PNS includes all the spinal ganglia and nerves, cranial nerves III-XII, and the autonomic nervous system.
  27. somatic PNS
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that innervates the skin, joints, and skeletal muscles.
  28. dorsal root ganglion
    A collection of cell bodies of the sensory neurons that are part of the somatic PNS. There is one dorsal root ganglion for each spinal nerve.
  29. visceral PNS
    The part of the PNS that innervates the organs, blood vessels, and glands; also called ANS.
  30. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    A system of central and peripheral nerves that innervates the internal organs, cardiovascular system and glands. (also called visceral PNS)

    The ANS consists of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions.
  31. afferent
    An axon coursing toward and innervating a given structure.
  32. efferent
    An axon originating in and coursing away from a given structure.
  33. cranial nerve
    12 pairs of nerves that arise from each side of the brain stem, numbered from anterior to posterior.

    CN I & II are both parts of the CNS, but CN III-XII are parts of the PNS.
  34. meninges
    Three membranes that cover the surface of the CNS: the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater.
  35. dura mater
    The outermost of the 3 meninges, the membranes that cover the surface of the CNS.
  36. arachnoid membrane
    The middle of the 3 meninges, the 3 membranes that cover the surface of the CNS.
  37. pia mater
    The innermost of the 3 meninges, the membranes that cover the surface of the CNS.
  38. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    In the CNS, the fluid produced by the choroid plexus that flows through the ventricular system to the subarachnoid space.
  39. ventricular system
    The cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces, inside the brain, consisting of the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, and 4th ventricle.
  40. gray matter
    A generic term for the collection of cell bodies in the CNS.

    When a freshly dissected brain is cut open, neurons appear gray.
  41. cortex
    Any collection of neurons that forms a thin sheet, usually at the brain's surface.
  42. nucleus
    1. THe roughly spherical organelle in a cell body containing the chromosomes.

    2. A clearly distinguishable mass of neurons, usually deep in the brain.
  43. substantia
    A group of related neurons deep within the brain, usually with less distinct borders than those of nuclei.
  44. locus
    A small, well-defined group of cells.
  45. ganglion
    A collection of neurons in the PNS
  46. nerve
    A bundle of axons in the PNS.
  47. white matter
    A generic term for a collection of CNS axons. When a freshly dissected brain is cut open, axons appear white.
  48. tract
    A collection of CNS axons with a common site of origin, and a common destination.
  49. bundle
    A collection of axons that run together but do not necessairily have the same origin and destination.
  50. capsule
    A collection of axons that connect the cerebrum with the brain stem.
  51. commisure
    Any collection of axons that connect one side of the brain with the other side.
  52. lemniscus
    A tract that meanders through the brain like a ribbon.
  53. neural tube
    The primitive embryonic CNS, consisting of a tube of neural ectoderm.
  54. neural crest
    The primitive embryonic PNS, consisting of neural ectoderm that pinches off laterally as the neural tube forms.
  55. neurulation
    The formation of the neural tube from the neural ectoderm during embryonic development.
  56. differentiation
    During embryonic development, the process by which structures become more complex, and functionally specialized.
  57. forebrain
    The region of the brain derived from the rostral primary embryonic brain vesicle; also called prosencephalon.

    Forebrain structures include the telencephalon, and the diencephalon.
  58. midbrain
    The region of the brain derived from the middle primary embryonic brain vesicle; also called mesencephalon.

    Midbrain structures include the tectum and the tegmentum.
  59. hindbrain
    The region of the brain derived from the caudal primary embryonic brain vescicle;

    also called rhombencephalon.

    Hindbrain structures include cerebellum, pons, and medulla.
  60. diencephalon
    A region of the brain stem derived from the prosencephalon (forebrain).

    Diencephalic structures include the thalamus and hypothalamus.
  61. telencephalon
    a region of the brain derived from the prosencephalon (forebrain). Telencephalic structures include the paired cerebral hemispheres that contain cerebral cortex and the basal telencephalon.
  62. olfactory bulb
    A bulb shaped brain structure derived from the telencephalon that receives input from olfactory receptors.
  63. lateral ventricle
    The CSF filled space within each cerebral hemisphere.
  64. third ventricle
    The CSF filled space within the diencephalon
  65. cerebral cortex
    The layer of matter that lies just under the surface of the cerebrum.
  66. basal telencephalon
    THe region of the telencephalon lying deep in the cerebral hemispheres.
  67. thalamus
    The dorsal part of the diencephalon, highly interconnected with the cerebral neocortex.
  68. hypothalamus
    The ventral part of the diencephalon involved in the control of the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland.
  69. cortical white matter
    A collection of axons lying just below the cerebral cortex.
  70. corpus callosum
    The great cerebral commisure, consisting of axons connecting the cortex of the two cerebral hemispheres.
  71. internal capsule
    A large collection of axons that connects the telencephalon with the diencephalon.
  72. tectum
    The part of the midbrain lying dorsal to the cerebral aquaduct.
  73. tegmentum
    The part of the midbrain lying ventral to the cerebral aquaduct
  74. cerebral aqueduct
    A canal filled with CSF within the midbrain.
  75. pons
    The part of the rostral hindbrain that lies ventral to the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle.
  76. medulla oblongata (medulla)
    The part of the hindbrain caudal to the pons and cerebellum; also called medulla.
  77. fourth ventricle
    THe CSF filled space within the hindbrain.
  78. spinal canal
    The CSF filled space within the spinal cord.
  79. dorsal horn
    The dorsal region of the spinal cord containing neuronal cell bodies.
  80. ventral horn
    The ventral region of the spinal cord containing neuronal cell bodies.
  81. sulcus
    A groove in the surface of the cerebrum running between the neighboring gyri.
  82. gyrus
    A bump or bulge lying between the sulci of the cerebrum.
  83. temporal lobe
    The region of the cerebrum lying under the temporal bone.
  84. frontal lobe
    The region of the cerebrum lying anterior to the central sulcus under the frontal bone.
  85. central sulcus
    The sulcus in the cerebrum that divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
  86. parietal lobe
    The region in the cerebrum lying under the parietal bone.
  87. occipital lobe
    The region of the cerebrum lying under the occipital bone.
  88. hippocampus
    A region of the cerebral cortex lying adjacent and medial to the olfactory cortex.

    In humans the hippocampus is in the temporal lobe and may play a role in learning and memory.
  89. olfactory cortex
    The region of the cerebral cortex connected to the olfactory bulb and separated from the neocortex by the rhinal fissure.
  90. neocortex
    The cerebral cortex, with six or more layers of neurons, found only in mammals.
  91. cytoarchitectural map
    A map, usually of the cerebral cortex, based on cytoarchitectural differences.

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