Ch 7 Neuro
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Ch 7 Neuro
Ch 7 Neuro
The anatomical reference meaning toward the nose or rostral.
anatomical reference meaning toward the nose or anterior.
anatomical ref. meaning toward the tail or caudal.
An anatomical reference meaning toward the tail or posterior.
Anatomical reference meaning toward the back
anatomical reference meaning toward the belly.
an invisible line that bisects the nervous system into right and left halves.
anatomical ref. meaning toward the midline.
away from the midline
on the SAME said of the midline.
on the opposite side of the midline
an anatomical plane of section through the midline that is perpendicular to the ground. Divides the nervous system into left and right halves.
anatomical plane of section that is parallel to the midsaggital plane.
anatomical plane of section that divides the nervous system into dorsal & ventral parts.
anatomical plane of section that divides the nervous system into anterior and posterior parts
central nervous system
The brain (including the retinas) and spinal cord.
The part of the CNS contained in the skull, consisting of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem & retinas.
the part of the CNS in the vertebral column
the largest part of the forebrain; also called the telencephalon.
2 sides of the cerebrum, derived from the paired telencephalic vesicles.
A structure derived from the rhombencephalon, attached to the brain stem at the pons;
an important movement control center.
The diencephalon, midbrain, pons and medulla.
A nerve attached to the spinal cord that innervates the body.
a bundle of sensory neuron axons that emerges from a spinal nerve and attaches to the dorsal side of the spinal cord.
Dorsal root axons bring information into the spinal cord.
A bundle of motor neuron axons that emerges from the ventral spinal cord, and joins sensory fibers to form a spinal nerve.
Ventral root axons carry information AWAY from the spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system
The parts of the nervous system other than the brain and spinal cord.
The PNS includes all the spinal ganglia and nerves, cranial nerves III-XII, and the autonomic nervous system.
the part of the peripheral nervous system that innervates the skin, joints, and skeletal muscles.
dorsal root ganglion
A collection of cell bodies of the sensory neurons that are part of the somatic PNS. There is one dorsal root ganglion for each spinal nerve.
The part of the PNS that innervates the organs, blood vessels, and glands; also called ANS.
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
A system of central and peripheral nerves that innervates the internal organs, cardiovascular system and glands. (also called visceral PNS)
The ANS consists of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions.
An axon coursing toward and innervating a given structure.
An axon originating in and coursing away from a given structure.
12 pairs of nerves that arise from each side of the brain stem, numbered from anterior to posterior.
CN I & II are both parts of the CNS, but CN III-XII are parts of the PNS.
Three membranes that cover the surface of the CNS: the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater.
The outermost of the 3 meninges, the membranes that cover the surface of the CNS.
The middle of the 3 meninges, the 3 membranes that cover the surface of the CNS.
The innermost of the 3 meninges, the membranes that cover the surface of the CNS.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
In the CNS, the fluid produced by the choroid plexus that flows through the ventricular system to the subarachnoid space.
The cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces, inside the brain, consisting of the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, and 4th ventricle.
A generic term for the collection of cell bodies in the CNS.
When a freshly dissected brain is cut open, neurons appear gray.
Any collection of neurons that forms a thin sheet, usually at the brain's surface.
1. THe roughly spherical organelle in a cell body containing the chromosomes.
2. A clearly distinguishable mass of neurons, usually deep in the brain.
A group of related neurons deep within the brain, usually with less distinct borders than those of nuclei.
A small, well-defined group of cells.
A collection of neurons in the PNS
A bundle of axons in the PNS.
A generic term for a collection of CNS axons. When a freshly dissected brain is cut open, axons appear white.
A collection of CNS axons with a common site of origin, and a common destination.
A collection of axons that run together but do not necessairily have the same origin and destination.
A collection of axons that connect the cerebrum with the brain stem.
Any collection of axons that connect one side of the brain with the other side.
A tract that meanders through the brain like a ribbon.
The primitive embryonic CNS, consisting of a tube of neural ectoderm.
The primitive embryonic PNS, consisting of neural ectoderm that pinches off laterally as the neural tube forms.
The formation of the neural tube from the neural ectoderm during embryonic development.
During embryonic development, the process by which structures become more complex, and functionally specialized.
The region of the brain derived from the rostral primary embryonic brain vesicle; also called prosencephalon.
Forebrain structures include the telencephalon, and the diencephalon.
The region of the brain derived from the middle primary embryonic brain vesicle; also called mesencephalon.
Midbrain structures include the tectum and the tegmentum.
The region of the brain derived from the caudal primary embryonic brain vescicle;
also called rhombencephalon.
Hindbrain structures include cerebellum, pons, and medulla.
A region of the brain stem derived from the prosencephalon (forebrain).
Diencephalic structures include the thalamus and hypothalamus.
a region of the brain derived from the prosencephalon (forebrain). Telencephalic structures include the paired cerebral hemispheres that contain cerebral cortex and the basal telencephalon.
A bulb shaped brain structure derived from the telencephalon that receives input from olfactory receptors.
The CSF filled space within each cerebral hemisphere.
The CSF filled space within the diencephalon
The layer of matter that lies just under the surface of the cerebrum.
THe region of the telencephalon lying deep in the cerebral hemispheres.
The dorsal part of the diencephalon, highly interconnected with the cerebral neocortex.
The ventral part of the diencephalon involved in the control of the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland.
cortical white matter
A collection of axons lying just below the cerebral cortex.
The great cerebral commisure, consisting of axons connecting the cortex of the two cerebral hemispheres.
A large collection of axons that connects the telencephalon with the diencephalon.
The part of the midbrain lying dorsal to the cerebral aquaduct.
The part of the midbrain lying ventral to the cerebral aquaduct
A canal filled with CSF within the midbrain.
The part of the rostral hindbrain that lies ventral to the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle.
medulla oblongata (medulla)
The part of the hindbrain caudal to the pons and cerebellum; also called medulla.
THe CSF filled space within the hindbrain.
The CSF filled space within the spinal cord.
The dorsal region of the spinal cord containing neuronal cell bodies.
The ventral region of the spinal cord containing neuronal cell bodies.
A groove in the surface of the cerebrum running between the neighboring gyri.
A bump or bulge lying between the sulci of the cerebrum.
The region of the cerebrum lying under the temporal bone.
The region of the cerebrum lying anterior to the central sulcus under the frontal bone.
The sulcus in the cerebrum that divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
The region in the cerebrum lying under the parietal bone.
The region of the cerebrum lying under the occipital bone.
A region of the cerebral cortex lying adjacent and medial to the olfactory cortex.
In humans the hippocampus is in the temporal lobe and may play a role in learning and memory.
The region of the cerebral cortex connected to the olfactory bulb and separated from the neocortex by the rhinal fissure.
The cerebral cortex, with six or more layers of neurons, found only in mammals.
A map, usually of the cerebral cortex, based on cytoarchitectural differences.