Card Set Information
what is the protrusion of an organ or tissue through the umbilicus?
What is a direct/indirect inguinal hernia?
Direct= explodes directly through wall
indirect= passes down inguinal canal (scrotal hernia)
What is paracentesis?
puncture of the peritoneal cavity to remove fluid
Define laparotomy or celiotomy incision
this is the opening of the abd cavity
What is done with a falciform ligament that obscures the view of the abdomen?
it is removed
What structures can be visualized through a xiphoid-pubic laparotomy incision w/o manipulation and their locations?
cranial= falciform ligament
middle= greater omentum =/- tail of spleen
Where is the spleen located when doing a laparotomy and how does it affect the incision?
left side or across the midline, tent the skin when opening the abd
What's an incision in to the abd just off the midline?
What'd the most imp layer that must be opposed when closing a paramedian midline incision?
external rectus sheath
What's an abd incision made in the paralumbar fossa?
paralumbar incision aka flank incision
What type of restraint s used for small animal flank surgery?
gen anesthesia rather than local
What's a common sequela to peritonitis?
adhesion b/w sheets of peritoneum
Must the peritoneum be apposed when closing the ventral midline?
no, best to leave it alone
Define wound dehiscence
splitting open of a surgical incision (separation of layers)
Why must including the falciform ligament or its fat in the closure of the abd be avoided?
may delay healing and contribute to wound dehiscence
What's the most imp structure to close in a midline incision?
What's a common cause of diaphragmatic hernias?
Trauma...cars, fights, kicks, falls
How is a diaphragmatic hernia reached surgically?
from the abd side
When opening the abd of a dog with a diaphragmatic hernia what must u be prepared to do?
breath for the dog, as when abd opened there won't be an pneumothorax
Is the peritoneum opposed when closing the abd?
no, less trauma
How is the stomach axis positioned in a lateral film when there's an enlarged liver?
exceeds angle parallel to ribs
Why is the cranial pole of the right kidney not visualized in a lateral radiograph?
in renal impression of liver, the same density
Where is the spleen sen in VD and lateral radiographs?
: triangular water density caudal to stomach on the left
Rt= lateral triangle
What causes a focal loss of detail to the right cranial abd?
What part of the right kidney can't be seen normally?
cranial pole embedded in liver
Where is the left kidney in relationship to the right?
1/2 kidney length caudal, slightly ventral
On what does visualization of the renal borders depend?
amt of perirenal fat present
Are the ureters visible on survey rads?
What structure of the renal pelvis shows up in contrast studies of the kidney that can give clues to problems?
What sides of the animal is the pylorus and the fundus?
pylorus= right and ventral
fundus= left and dorsal
Which is more ventral, the fundus or the pylorus?
On what side of the abd is the cecum?
To what are species differences in the large intestine due?
modification of the ascending colon
What is the opening of the ileum in to the colon?
What is the course of the transverse colon in all domestic species?
right to left cranial to root of mesentary
Where is the liver located?
cranial abd abutting diaphragm, almost completely intrathoracic
The renal impression is in which liver lobe? which side?
caudate lobe, right
What ligament attaches the liver to the stomach?
The common bile duct enters the duodenum at the _____ along with the ____ duct
major duodenal papillae, pancreatic duct
List the parts of the pancreas and their location
: near pylorus
: deep leaf, greater omentum
Where is the dorsal end of the spleen located? ventral?
on left, fixed to greater curvature, variable
what is the elongated area of the spleen where vessels enter?
What arteries pass from the spleen to the fundus of the stomach?
short gastric aa
What is the expanded proximal end of ureters?
What does urine drop from the kidney?
Which species has capsular veins on the outside of its kidneys?
What parts of the renal pelvis surrounds the pseudopapillae?
How do the ureters pass through the bladder wall and why?
oblique angle to prevent back flow
Where is the trigone of the urinary bladder?
dorsal internal area b/w the 2 ureteral openings and opening of the urethra
What is a serous membrane?
a thin, continuous membrane lining a closed cavity of the body, covering its organs
What are standing lateral views using a horizontal beam direction through a standing animal used to detect?
fluid levels in bowel or abd
On what does peritoneal detail depend?
serosal fat around organs
What is the term of an abd with an overall gray appearance due to loss of serousal detail?
"ground glass" appearance
What is the opaque media or gas to dilineate portions of the GI tract called?
What must always precede contrast studies?
Name one structure than normally is in the left caudal quadrant?
Which sides of the diaphragm can be seen in the rads?
cranial surface (contrast with lungs)
not the caudal end due to water densities around
Where is the parts of the stomach located in VD and lateral films?
Fundus= VD left, lateral and dorsal
body= VD, midline (dog) and left (cat)
pylorus= DV, right (dog), midline (cat)
Where is air likely to be seen in the stomach in a rad taken in right lateral recumbency, right and left views?
Where would gas be expected in the stomach in a DV view? VD?
fundic regio (dorsal up) and VD: pylorus
What is the normal stomachs axis in the lateral projection?
b/w lines vertical to spine and parallel to ribs
What is the stomach axis used for clinically?
evaluate the size of the liver
What is the air and contrast material w/in an organ called?
double contrast studies
How would you precisely locate a radiopaque foreign body to the stomach?
take 2 radiographs 90degrees to each other
What does full 360 degree gastric dilatation and volvulus look line on a lateral radiograph?
enlarged gas filled stomach w/ a fold dividing the stomach in to dorsal and ventral compartments
What is the large distended loop of small intestine, named b/c they indicate trouble?
What is the shape and location of the cecum in a VD rad?
"C" corkscrew shape, right side level of L3, seen only if air filled
Is the descending colon seen in VD and lateral survey rads?
yes, if fecal filled
What structure may be surmised ot be enlarged in lateral rads by ventral displacement of the descending colon?
medial iliac lymph nodes
Linear foreign bodies in the small intestine ie: string will cause the bowel to ____ ____ on the string due to peristalsis
bunch up/plicate or accordion pleat, very apparent with contrast study
What should you do if you see a string hanging out of either end of a cat or dog?
don't pull or may saw through bunched bowel, surgically remove
In normal adults dogs on an expiratory abd rad, liver usually doesnt extend past last ____
List 3 of 4 connecting peritoneum
mesenteries, omenta, ligaments and folds
What peritoneum connects the liver and the ventral abd wall?
How many layers are in the diff classifications of peritoneum?
parietal and visceral= 1
What is the peritoneal cavity?
potential space b/w parietal and visceral peritoneum
What are the 2 layers of the greater omentum?
superficial and deep leaves
What is the opening in to the omental bursa from the peritoneal cavity?
What is the root of the mesentary?
attachement of the mesentary to dorsal abd
Name the 3 main unpaired branches of the abd aorta?
celiac a, cranial and caudal mesenteric aa
What do the celiac, cranial and caudal mesenteric aa supply?
viscera drained by portal vein
what are the 3 branches of the celiac artery?
hepatic, splenic and left gastric
How do the jejunal aa terminate to supply the jejunum?
form arcades and vasa recti to jejunum
What vessels supply the fundus of the stomach?
short gastric aa from splenic a
How are the ovarian aa located?
lift up ovary and look in mesoovarium
How are the testicular aa located in the abd?
passing caudal to kidney to vaginal ring
What vein carries blood from abd viscera to the liver?
What are the primary abd organs not drained by the portal v? why?
kidneys, adrenal glands, gonads, liver; not drained b/c hormones would be destroyed by the liver
Where does the left gonadal vein empty?
in to left renal v instead of crossing aorta to vena cava
What lymphatic vessel drains the lymph from the cisterna chyli that drains the caudal animal?
To which lymph nodes does lymph drain to form the caudal and cranial mammae?
caudal= superficial inguinal
what are the large lymph nodes beneath the termination of the aorta?
medial iliac lymph nodes
What are the intestinal lymphatic vessels that absorb fat?
What directions do the ventral branches of the spinal nerves travel?
What Where are the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division located?
near branches of abd aorta
What gland is part of the sympathetic ANS?
adrenal glands (medulla)
How do u visualize the kidneys during a laparotomy?
pull the descending colon and its mesocolon or descending duodenum and its mesoduodenum medially and look in the abd gutter for left and right kidneys
What is inflammation of the kidney?
What structure of the renal pelvis shows up in contrast studies of the kidney that can give clues to problems?
What is the removal of a kidney? what should be checked first?
nephrectomy; check for another kidney before removal of the 1
What is an incision in to a kidney?
What is inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis?
What is patent urachus?
persistant urachus from the bladder to umbilicus
What is a clinical sign of a patent urachus?
dribbling of urine from the umbilicus
What is an abnormal concretion in any part of the urinary system?
What is FUS in cats?
urinary tract disease characterized by dysuria and hematuria w/ or w/o obstruction
What is the creation of a permanent opening for the urethra in the perineum, a common treatment for FUS?
What is an abnormal termination of a ureter some place besides the urinary bladder?
ectopic ureter, surgically reimplanted obliquely through the bladder wall when corrected
What is the #1 iatrogenic ureteral injury occurring during a spay?
ligature or clamp mistakenly applied to ureter
What vessels have to be considered when opening the abd?
cranial and caudal superficial epigastric vessels
What artery is surgically important in operations of the cecum?
large cecal artery hidden on the dorsal surface
What must not be ligated when removing the spleen?
Short gastrics and left gastroepiploic aa or artery supplying them
How are vessels ligated during a splenectomy and why?
close to the hilus, to preserve short gastrics and left gastroepiploic supply to the stomach
Where is the largest artery of the cecum located?
hidden on dorsal side of the cecum
What aa should surgeons watch for when doing nephrectomies?
renal aa usually singular but double/triple are possible
What vascular incidence can cause paralysis of the rear limb in cats?
saddle thrombus in caudal aorta, blocking external iliac aa
What is the landmark for finding the adrenal glands?
phrenicoabdominal v over ventral surface
What is a portosystemic shunt?
splanchnic circulation bypasses normal hepatic system and empties in to systemic veins
What is a paracentesis /abd puncture?
surgical puncture of abd for aspiration of fluid
What emergency twisting of the stomach occurs in large and giant breed dogs with deep chests?
gastric dilatation/volvulus complex, bloat
What common problem results in projectile vomiting?
What is intussusception?
telescoping of a segment of the intestine in to lumen of an adjacent segment
What i an incision in to the intestines?
What is inflammation of the cecum?
What is surgical removal of the cecum?
What must be avoided when removing the anal sacs surgically?
caudal rectal nn and external anal sphinctor
What is eversion of the inner rectum through the anus?
What are the pathological tracts b/w the rectum and the skin surrounding the anus?
What is the partial removal of the liver?
How is a liver biopsy taken in dogs?
laportomy caudal to xiphoid process, finger holds liver in place, biopsy needle through separate stab incision
What is inflammation of the gallbladder?
How is the right limb of the pancreas exposed during exploratory surgery?
retracts duodenum ventromedially
How is the left lobe of the pancreas exposed surgically?
retract stomach and spleen cranially and transverse colon caudally
how would you locate adrenal gland during sx?
phrenicoabdominal v crosses ventrally
What is the removal of 1 or more mammary glands?
When wouldn't a mastectomy be performed on a mammary tumor?
if distal lung metastisis is already present
What do the following surgical suffixes mean?
- removal of organ or part by sx
-surgically creating an artificial opening b/w 2 hollow organs or b/w a hollow organ and abd wall
How are the abd gutters exposed?
pull descending duodenum and mesoduodenum or colon and mesocolon medially
What is ileus?
obstruction of the intestines
Can the liver be palpable in the normal dog?
How is the descending colon palpated? When is this easiest?
on left side...easiest when constipated
Can the kidneys be palpated in the dog? How easy can the cat's kidneys be palpated through the abd wall?
In some dogs, right is more difficult
Usually left pendulous enough to palpate right may also be palpated
Is the urinary bladder palpable in the dog and the cat?
When can and can't the uterus be palpated?
Can't or rarely in nonpregnant pitches
: vesicle palpable ranging at 25-35 days then horns uniformly enlarged: nonpalpable
How is the superficial inguinal ln palpated?
subcutaneously just craniomedial to thigh
List 7 of the 9 regions of the abd
xiphoid, rt. and left hypogastric, rt and left flank, umbilical, rt and lt inguinal, pubic
What is the fold of the flank?
fold of skin from thigh to abd wall
What are the 3 midline regions from cranial to caudal?
xiphoid, umbilical, prepubic
List the main structures found in the left cranial quadrant
diaphragm, left liver lobes, fundus and body of stomach, cranial pole of left kidney, spleen, left limb of pancreas
List structures crossing the midline bw the left and right cranial quadrants
body of stomach, transverse colon, left limb of pancreas, liver, diaphragm
What main structures are located in the right caudal quadrant?
descending duodenum, cecum, uterine horn and ovary, caudal pole of right kidney, right ductus deferens, right vaginal ring, right ureter
What main structures are located in the right cranial quadrant?
diaphragm, epiploic foramen, caudal lobe of liver, right lobe and body of pancreas, pylorus and pyloric antrum, descending duodenum, right adrenal, cranial lobe of right kidney
List structures crossing the midline bw left and right caudal quaudrants?
uterine body, urinary bladder, prostate, terminal branches of aorta, caudal flexure of duodenum, ileum
What main structures are found in the left caudal quadrant?
descending colon, left ureter, caudal mesenteric a, mesocolon, left uterine horn and ovary, left ductus deferens, left vaginal ring, left ureter
What are the names of the mammae in the bitch?
Cranial and cadual thoracic, cranial and caudal abdominal and inguinal
What spaces store milk in the mammary gland?
lactiferous sinus= glands sinus and teat sinus
What passages lead from the teat sinus to the outside?
teat canal or papillary duct
What are the openings on the nipple/papilla? # in the dog?
teat orifices, many per nipple
What main vessels supply the mammary glands?
cranial and caudal superficial epigastric and lateral thoracic aa and vv
List the abd muscles superficial to deep?
external abd oblique
internal abd oblique
What is the caudal free edge of the aponeurosis of EAO extending from the tuber coxae around the iliopsoas m to the prepubic tendon?
What is the rectus sheath?
aponeuroses of the abd mm around the rectus abdominis m, meet/fuse at the linea alba
What is the musculotendinous partition bw the thorax and abd?
What are the parts of the diaphragm?
outer: muscular part, inner-dorsal: crura and tendinous center
List the opening through the diaphragm
aortic, esophageal hiatuses, caval foramen
Name 2 sublumbar muscles
psoas minor and major and aquadratus lumborum
What are the cranial and caudal boundaries of the abd cavity?
cranial - diaphragm
caudal- pelvic inlet
What is the term for a part further from the mouth?
closer to the mouth?
can an orad part be further caudally than an aborad part?
yes, ie: cecum to transverse colon
List the parts of the abd tubular GI tract from orad to aborad
abdominal, esphagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, anus
List the parts of the abd GI tract including accessory organs from orad to aborad
abdominal esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, pancreas, pancreatic ducts, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, anus
What peritoneum connects the stomach and duodenum to the liver?
What are the attachments of the greater omentum?
greater curvature and dorsal abdominal wall
Name the longitudinal folds of the stomach mucosa
Where is the stomach located?
cranial behind liver and depending on how full can extend half way b/w the xiphoid and pubis
Name the 3 divisions of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What opens in to the descending duodenum?
common bile duct, pancreatic ducts and stomach
Which part of the small intestine has the longest mesentary?
What connecting peritoneums suspend the duodenum?
mesoduodenum and duodenocolic ligaments
List the parts of the large intestine
cecum, colon and rectum, anal canal
What does the ileocecal fold connect?
ileum and cecum
Name 3 parts of the colon
ascending, transverse and descending
Upon what does anal continence depend?
internal and external anal sphincters
What is the end and terminal opening of the GI tract?
anal canal and anus
What are the reservoirs for secretions opening in to the carnivore's anus?
Where are the anal sacs in relationship to the anal sphincters?
b/w internal and external anal sphincters
What is the functional input and exit of the liver?
What ligament of the liver originates from the coronary ligament and extends to the sternal part of the diaphragm?
Name the 4 ligaments attaching the liver to the diaphragm
coronar, right and left triangular and falciform
What structure stores and concentrates bile?
What carries bile to and from the gallbladder?
What vessel carries nutrient-rick blood fromt he stomach, intestines, pancreas and spleen to the liver? What vessel carries oxygen to liver?
Portal vein and hepatic artery
What is the structural unit of the liver?
The ______ cells are arranged radially around liver sinusoids
What spaces bathe the hepatic cells?
What small tubules collect bile from the hepatic cells?
Compare the direction of flow in the liver sinusoids and bile caliculi?
in opposite directions; blood twd caudal vena cava, bile twd porta
What do the liver sinusoids form that join to form the hepatic veins?
What functional part of the pancreas does the pancreatic ducts drain?
Where is the endocrine function of the pancreas carried out?
islet cells of the pancreas
what is the exocrine function of the pancreas?
pancreatic enzymes aid in digestion
what do the pancreatic ducts carry to the duodenum?
With what 2 abd organs is the spleen closely associated?
stomach and greater omentum
Of what does the serosa consist?
layer of mesothelium and ct backing
what erous membrane covers the walls of a cavity?
what is the CT around an organ that's not in a body cavity called? What is it called if it's in a body cavity?
what do clinicians usually call the visceral serosa on an organ?
What does a fold of peritoneum connect?
2 visceral layers of peritoneum
Name 2 subdivisions of the peritoneal cavity
ovarian bursa and omental bursa
is the peritoneal cavity open to the outside of the animaL?
yes in females via uterine tube, no in males
what is a diverticulum of the peritoneal cavity?
how are the pouches of the peritoneal cavity formed?
caudal reflections of peritoneum bw organs of pelvis
list the 3 pouches of the peritoneum
rectogenital, vesicogenetal and pubovesical
what is bw the 2 leaves of the greater omentum?
what does the lesser omentum connect?
liver to lesser curvature of stomach and duodenum
Give the location of the epiploic foramen in to the omental bursa
ventromedial to caudate lobe bw caudal vena cava and portal v
why is the omentum called the policeman of the abd?
helps wall off infections
what are located in the free edges of the lateral ligaments of the urinary bladder?
urachus or remnant of the urachus
what connects the spleen and the stomach?
gastrosplenic ligament (part of greater omentum)
what is the serosa see in the cranial end of a ventral midline incision?
What is the functions of the mesentaries?
suspend organs and path for vessels and nn to organ
name the connecting peritoneum suspending the:
-mesojejunum or great mesentary
What does the celiac a supply?
cranial abd organs
what main arteries send branches to the pancreas?
branches of celiac and cranial mesenteric aa
what is the blood supply to the intestine?
cranial and caudal mesenteric aa
what are the numerous vessels to the jejunum?
jejunal aa from cranial mesenteric a
how does the splenic artery enter the spleen?
all along it's long hilus
what is the blood supply of the pancreas?
cranial and caudal pacreaticoduodenal a and pancreatic branches
how is the venal cava formed?
external and internal iliac vv unite = 2 common iliac vv which unite= caudal vena cava
to where does the lymph from the pelvic limbs, pelvis and abd drain?
what lymphatic ducts drain the abd viscera of lymph?
visceral lymphatic trunks
what forms cysterna chyli?
lumbar and viscera lymphatic trunks
where does lymph drain to from the caudal mammae (4 and 5, maybe even 3)?
superficial inguinal lymph node
where do the cranial 3 pairs of mammary glands mainly drain?
axillary lymph node
where are the lymph nodes in the root of the mesentery?
jejunal lymph nodes
what do the medial iliac lymph nodes drain?
dorsal abd, pelvis and pelvic limb