Water Vocabulary

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Author:
colevyoung
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107670
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Water Vocabulary
Updated:
2011-11-14 21:34:59
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Water distribution vocab
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Vocabulary for Water Distribution (d1-d2)
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  1. A map that provides an overall view of a distribution system.
    Comprehensive Map
  2. Maintenance in response to a failure.
    Corrective Maintenance
  3. The gradual decomposition or destruction of a material by chemical action, often due to an electrochemical reaction.
    Corrosion
  4. The addition of a chemical to increase the concentration of fluoride ions in drinking water to a predetermined optimum limit to reduce the incidence of tooth decay in children.
    Fluoridation
  5. A computer program that combines mapping with detailed information about the physical locations of structures such as pipes, valves and manholes within geographic areas.
    Geographic Information System
  6. Maps and drawings showing constructed facilities in their "as-built" condition.
    Record Drawings
  7. Scheduled work to prevent failures.
    Preventive Maintenance
  8. An act passed by the U.S. Congress in 1974 establishing a cooperative program among local, state and federal agencies to ensure safe drinking water for consumers.
    Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
  9. Pipelines that deliver water from a system's source of supply to the distribution system.
    Transmission Main
  10. The difference between produced or purchased water and water sold to consumers
    Unaccounted For Water
  11. The "One-Call" phone number that should be contacted prior to digging or drilling underground.
    Underground Service Alert
  12. The addition of a new main or lateral connection into an existing main while the existing main remains in service.
    Wet Tap
  13. A condition in which atmospheric or dissolved molecular oxygen is NOT present in the aquatic (water) environment.
    Anerobic
  14. A collection of individual samples obtained at regular intervals combined together and analyzed to determine the average conditions during the sampling period.
    Composite Sample
  15. An annual report prepared by a water utility to provide consumers with information on the source and quality of their drinking water.
    Consumer Confidence Reports
  16. A waterborne intestinal parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis in infected humans.
    Cryptosporidium
  17. The total water removed from an area by transpiration (plants) and evaporation from soil, snow and water surfaces.
    Evapotranspiration
  18. Water that has passed through a treatment plant and is ready to be delivered to consumers.
    Finished Water
  19. A waterborne intestinal parasite that causes Giardiasis in infected humans.
    Giardia
  20. A single sample of water collected at a particular time and place which represents the composition of the water only at that time and place.
    Grab Sample
  21. The process of evaporation and transpiration of water into the air, its return to earth by precipitation, groundwater movement and runoff into rivers, streams and the ocean.
    Hydrologic Cycle
  22. Number of coliformā€group organisms per unit volume of sample water.
    Most Probable Number
  23. Water that may contain objectionable pollution, contamination, minerals, or infective agents and is considered unsafe and/or unpalatable for drinking.
    Nonpotable
  24. Water at a desirable temperature that is free from objectionable tastes, odors, colors, and turbidity. Pleasing to the senses.
    Palatable
  25. The impairment (reduction) of water quality by agricultural, domestic, or industrial wastes to a degree that has an adverse effect on any beneficial use of water.
    Pollution
  26. The process by which atmospheric moisture falls onto a land or water surface as rain, snow, hail, or other forms of moisture.
    Precipitation
  27. The transition of a substance from the solid phase to the gas phase without passing through an intermediate liquid phase such as the loss of snow from a snowfield during a cold spell caused by sunshine acting directly on the outer layers of the snow.
    Sublimation
  28. The process by which water vapor is released to the atmosphere by living plants.
    Transpiration
  29. A device which conducts periodic or continuous measurement of some factor such as chlorine, fluoride or turbidity.
    Analyzer
  30. Living organisms, microscopic in size which usually consist of a single cell.
    Bacteria
  31. Any substance which tends to produce cancer in an organism.
    Carcinogen
  32. A group of bacteria found in the intestines of warm blooded animals (including humans) and also in plants, soil, air and water. The presence of these bacteria is an indication that the water is polluted and may contain pathogenic organisms.
    Coliform
  33. A waterborne intestinal parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis in infected humans.
    Cryptosporidium
  34. Material such as sand, salt, iron, calcium salts and other mineral materials.
    Inorganic
  35. The largest allowable amount of regulated constituents in water as specified in the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.
    Maximum Contaminant Level
  36. Broken down organic matter that comes from decayed vegetation in water.
    Natural Organic Matter
  37. Substances that come from animal or plant sources. These substances always contain carbon.
    Organic
  38. Disease causing organisms
    Pathogens
  39. The impairment (reduction) of water quality by agricultural, domestic, or industrial wastes to a degree that has an adverse effect on any beneficial use of water.
    Pollution
  40. A water sample that has tested positive for bacteriological contamination.
    Positive Bacteriological Sample
  41. Water that does not contain objectionable pollution, contamination, minerals, or infective agents and is considered satisfactory for drinking.
    Potable
  42. Sampling repeated on a regular basis.
    Routine Sampling
  43. All of the dissolved solids in water.
    Total Dissolved Solids
  44. A volume of water that covers one acre to a de4pth of one foot, or 43,560 cubic feet.
    Acre-Foot
  45. The total demand for water during a period of time divided by the number of days in that time period.
    Average Demand
  46. A reservoir for the storage of filtered water of sufficient capacity to prevent the need to vary the filtration rate with variations in demand.
    Clear Well
  47. The theoretical (calculated) time required for a small amount of water to pass through a tank at a given rate of flow.
    Detention Time
  48. The act of removing water from a tank or reservoir.
    Draw
  49. Storage facility that is elevated above the service zone and is used primarily to maintain an adequate an fairly uniform pressure to that service zone.
    Elevated Tank
  50. A method of operating a water storage facility. When consumer demands are low the storage facility will be filling. During periods of high demand, the facility will be emptying.
    Float on System
  51. The vertical distance from the normal water surface to the top of the confining wall.
    Freeboard
  52. A unit of length equal to 0.001 of an inch.
    Mil
  53. The measure of the concentration by weight of a substance per unit volume. Equivalent in fresh water to one part per million.
    Milligrams Per Liter
  54. The maximum momentary load placed on a water treatment plant, pump station or distribution station. This demand is usually the maximum average load in one hour or less.
    Peak Demand
  55. A condition that occurs in tanks or basins when some of the flowing water entering a tank or basin flows along a nearly direct pathway from the inlet to the outlet.
    Short Circuiting
  56. A storage tank in which the height is greater than the diameter.
    Standpipe
  57. The formation of layers of different temperatures in a lake or reservoir.
    Thermal Stratification
  58. The amount of time it takes to cycle the volume of a reservoir.
    Turnover Rate
  59. A condition in which atmospheric or dissolved molecular oxygen is present in the aquatic environment.
    Aerobic
  60. The surface in a corrosion cell where oxidation occurs and that loses material (corrodes).
    Anode
  61. The surface in a corrosion cell that is protected.
    Cathode
  62. An electrical system for preventing corrosion to metals, particularly metallic pipe and tanks.
    Cathodic Protection
  63. The end of a water main which is not connected to other parts of the distribution system by means of a connecting loop of pipe.
    Dead End
  64. The deliberate removal of chlorine from water. The partial or complete reduction of residual chlorine by any chemical or physical process.
    Dechlorination
  65. The process by which water or other liquid becomes a gas (water vapor)
    Evaporation
  66. A form of localized corrosion caused by the connection of two different metals in an electrolyte such as water.
    Galvanic Corrosion
  67. In a distribution system, storage of water in a tank whose bottom is at or below the surface of the ground.
    Ground Level Tank
  68. Sampling repeated on a regular basis.
    Routine Sampling
  69. In cathodic protection, a metal substance that is more reactive to the corrosive environment of the system to be protected and is electrically linked to the protected system. The substance partially corrodes or dissolves thereby protecting the metal of the system to which it is connected.
    Sacrificial Anode
  70. The development or formation of small mounds of corrosion products on the inside of iron pipe.
    Tuberculation
  71. The process of evaporation and transpiration of water into the air, its return to earth by precipitation, groundwater movement and runoff into rivers, streams and the ocean.
    Water Cycle
  72. The potentially damaging slam, bank, or shudder that occurs in a pipe when a sudden change in water velocity creates a great increase in water pressure.
    Water Hammer
  73. Compounds formed during chlorination by reactions with natural organic materials in water that are supected of causing cancer
    Trihalomethanes
  74. The cloudy appearance of water caused by the presence of suspended and colloidal matter
    Turbidity
  75. A reverse flow condition, created by a difference in water pressures, which causes water to flow back into the distribution pipes of a potable water supply system from any source other than the intended source.
    Backflow
  76. A pressure that can cause water to backflow into the water supply when a user's water system is at a higher pressure than the public water system.
    Backpressure
  77. A form of backflow caused by a negative or below atmospheric pressure within a water system.
    backsiphonage
  78. A value used to indicate the smoothness of the interior of a pipe.
    C-Factor
  79. A connection between a drinking (potable) water system and an unapproved water supply.
    Cross Connection
  80. A method used to clean water distribution lines. Hydrants are opened and water with a high velocity flows through the pipes removing deposits from the pipes.
    Flushing
  81. The head, pressure or energy lost by water flowing in a pipe or channel as a result of turbulence caused by the velocity of the flowing water and the roughness of the pipe or restrictions caused by fittings.
    Friction Losses
  82. The vertical distance (in feet) equal to the pressure (in psi) at a specific point.
    Head
  83. The elevation water would rise to in a small vertical tube connected to a pipe under pressure.
    Hydraulic Grade
  84. A diagram, photo or drawing showing a facility as it would appear when looking down on top of it.
    Plan View
  85. A drawing showing elevation plotted against distance, such as the vertical sedction of side view of a pipeline
    Profile
  86. A device that measures (senses) a physical condition or variable of interest.
    Sensor
  87. The position at which the control or controller is set. This is the same as the desired value of the process variable.
    Set Point
  88. The electrical link between the transmitter and the receiver.
    Telemetry
  89. Addition of chlorine to water until the chlorine demand has been satisfied. at this point further addition of chlorine will result in a free chlorine resiual that is driectly proportional to the amount of chlorine added.
    Breakpoint Chlorination
  90. The application of chlorine and ammonia to water to form chloramines for the purpose of disinfection.
    Chloramination
  91. A metering device which is used to add chlorine to water.
    Chlorinator
  92. The difference between the amount of chlorine added to water and the amount of residual chlorine remaining.
    Chlorine Demand
  93. The concentration of chlorine present in water after the chlorine demand has been satisfied.
    Chlorine Residual
  94. Residual concentration of a given disinfectant in mg/L times the disinfectant's contact time in minutes.
    CT Value
  95. The process designed to kill or inactivate most microoganisms in water including essentially all pathogenic bacteria
    Disinfection
  96. A device used to dispense a chemical solution into water being treated.
    Ejector
  97. Chlorine that has not combined with ammonia, nitrogen or other compounds.
    Free Chlorine
  98. Chemical compounds containing available chlorine used for disinfection that are available as liquids (bleach) or solids (powder, granules and tablets).
    Hypochlorite
  99. An aerobic process in which bacteria oxidize the ammonia and organic nitroged in water into nitrite and then nitrate
    Nitrification
  100. Substances in water that react with and thereby consume chlorine.
    Reducing Agent
  101. The removal or destruction of all microorganisms in water.
    Sterilization
  102. The total concentration of chlorine in water, including combined chlorine and free chlorine.
    Total Chlorine
  103. The Formation and collapse of a gas pocket or bubble on the gate of a valve. The collapse of this gas pocket or bubble drives water into the gate with a terrific force that can cause pitting on the gate surface.
    Cavitation
  104. A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft that is enclosed in a casing, and having an inlet and discharge connection.
    Centrifugal
  105. When a pump is operating, the vertical distance (in feet) from a reference point (such as a pump centerline) to the hydraulic grade line.
    Dynamic Head
  106. A unit of power, equal to about 746 watts, used to measure the power of engines.
    Horsepower
  107. A rotating set of vanes in a pump designed to pump or move water
    Impeller
  108. the lowest (bottum) point on the inside of a pipeline
    Invert
  109. The ratio of energy delivered by a motor to the energy supplied to it during a fixed period or cycle.
    Motor Efficiency
  110. The submereged pumping unit in a well, including the shaft impellers and housing.
    Pump Bowl
  111. The temporary support of trench walls during construction, in order to provide the stability that will protect workers and the public.
    Shoring
  112. Excavated material such as soil from the trench of a water main.
    Spoils
  113. The centerline of a pipeline
    Spring Line
  114. Laying out pipeline for installation
    Stringing
  115. The level layer of rock or earth upon which the foundation of a road or railway is laid
    Subgrade
  116. The negative pressure on the suction side of the pump. The pressure can be measured from the centerline of the pump down to the elevation of the hydraulic grade line on the suction side of the pump.
    Suction Lift
  117. The combined efficiency of a pump and motor together
    Wire to Water Efficiency

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