Card Set Information
Water D2, math formulas,etc.
How many pounds does a gallon of water weigh?
How many pounds does a cubic foot of water weigh?
62.4 lbs/cubic foot
How many gallons are in a cubic foot?
7.48 gallons/cubic foot
What is the formula for the
of a circle?
What is the
of a triangle?
A= base x height/2
What is the
of a trapezoid? (a canal is a trapezoid)
2 or bh
What is the circumference (perimeter) of a circle?
C = 3.14 x D
What is the formula for the
of a rectangular tank, in
V =Length, in feet x Width, in feet x Height, in feet
or V =LWH
What is the formula for
, of a cylindrical tank or pipeline?
H or V =0.785D
(H= height of a tank or L=length of pipe, in feet)
What is the formula for the amount of
a cylindrical tank or pipeline can contain?
H x 7.48 gal/cubic foot
L x 7.48 gal/cubic foot
What is the quantity formula?
Q =quantity or cubic feet per second
V =velocity usually in feet per second
What is the pound formula?
Mgd x 8.34 lbs/gallon x ppm = lbs per day/ % available
What does Mgd mean?
Million gallons per day
What does ppm mean?
Parts per million (one part in a million parts)
What is another name for ppm?
Milligram per liter (mg/L), where 1 mg/L = 1 ppm
How do you calculate percentages?
Percent = part/whole
How can you calculate Mgd when you know cubic feet per second (cfs)?
Cfs x 0.646 = Mgd
How many ppm are in 1%?
1% = 10,000 ppm
or 10,000 mg/L
How much is one billing unit?
1 CCF or 748 gallons
what is the detention time formula?
Dt = volume/flow
How many minutes are in a day?
1440 minutes per day
How many Liters are in a gallon?
How many milliliters are in a Liter?
How do you convert feet of water column into pressure, in pounds per square inch?
Feet of water x 0.433 = psi
What is the relationship between chlorine dosage, demand, and residual?
Dosage = Demand + Residual
How many square feet are in an acre?
43,560 square feet
are in an acre-foot?
43,560 cubic feet
of water are in an acre-foot?
43,560 cubic feet x 7.48 gallons/cubic foot = 325,828.8 gallons
What is the water horsepower formula?
whp = gpm x ft-head
How do you convert degrees Fahrenheit into Celsius?
(F + 40) x 5/9 - 40 = C
How do you convert Celsious into Fahrenheit?
(F + 40) x 9/5 - 40 = F
How do you convert ppm into grains per gallon that's used in water softening?
ppm/17.1 = gpg
How would you determine a filtration rate, in gallons per minute per square foot?
gpm/sq.ft. = flow,in gpm/ surface area, sq.ft.
How would you determine the amount of pounds of "active" ingredients per gallon when you know a liquid's active ingrediend percentage?
percent x weight of water x specific gravity = lbs. active ingredients
What is the relationship between two liquids, when the volumes and concentrations are partially known?
Secondary water quality standards are primarily concerned with
Aesthetics (taste, color, odor, etc.)
Surge Tanks provide what function in a water distribution system?
Mitigate the impacts of water hammer
An Elevated Tank is
Elevated above the pressure zone
The term "MCL" means
Maximum contaminant level
A clear well provides
Storage of treated or filtered water from a treatment plant.
Any of the bacteria within the coliform bacterial group can be considered as
An indicator of pathogenic organisms
A water storage facility is classified as a Standpipe if
It has a height greater than its diameter.
What term describes water that is suitable for drinking?
what is one of the primary causes of water quality deterioration in a potable water storage reservoir?
Poor Mixing or Circulation of Reservoir Contents
What is the term for water samples collected at an individual location at a specific time?
Bacteria that cause disease and other health impacts to humans are known as
What are the three types of recommended inspections for Potable Water Storage Tanks?
Routine, Periodic, Comprehensive
A cross-connection is defined as a connection between...
a potable water system and a non-potable water system.
When referring to pumps and motors, what does the term "wire-to-water efficiency" mean?
Overall effiency of the motor and pump assembly
Within the same pressure zone as elevation increases pressure in a pipeline will...
Backpressure is caused by?
Higher pressure in the unapproved water supply than in the domestic system
The most common type of water distribution pump is the
The Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) at any point in a destribution system is made up of the following two components:
Elevation and Pressure Head
An open vertical drop, or empty space, that separates a drinking (potable) water supply to be protected from another water system is referred to as an
The submerged pumping unit in a well, including the shaft, impellers, and housing is called
The Pump Bowl
Which of the following is a measure of the smoothness of a pipe?
What backflow prevention device has a center relief valve?
Reduced pressure backflow assembly
What is the rotating element in a pump?
What causes the Hydraulic Grade Line to slope downward?
A reverse flow condition which causes water to flow back into the potable water system from any source other than the intended source is called?
Total Dynamic Head is
The Total Head added by the pump
The term used to describe the vertical distance, in feet, equivalent to the pressure at a specific point in a hydraulic system is
Which pipe extension method does not require an interruption in water service?
Water quality in a water distribution system means:
Free of Disease and Toxic Chemicals.
Attractive in Taste and Appearance.
Satisfying to Customers.
Each is a type of water distribution system storage facility:
What are the two main objectives of a water distribution system?
Adequate Flow with High Water Quality.
The terms Grid, Loop, and Tree are
Types of Water Distribution System Layout Patterns
Disease causing bacteria are known as
What is one of the primary purposes of reservoir storage?
Equalizing Supply and Demand.
What is the recommended minimum water pressure in a distribution system at any time, including fire flow conditions?
Three typical water distribution system pipe materials
The maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total trihalomethanes is
80 parts per billion
What is a typical cause of water hammer?
Closing a valve too fast
Closing Fire Hydrants too fast
What fitting is used to create one new branch in a water line?
What does the Total Coliform Rule require in response to a positive sample for Total Coliforms?
Causes of lost water in distribution system pipelines:
Typical reservoir components:
Cathodic protection means protection against
On what type of pipe is tuberculation most likely to occur?
Cast Iron Pipe
By regulation which type of water source of supply requires treatment by filtration prior to delivery to water consumers?
For best results the flushing velocity for standard flushing programs should be
2.5 - 3.5 psi
What are the typical potential impacts of a mainline pipe failure?
A Positive Bacteriological Sample means:
Presence of bacteriological contamination
The metal component that loses metal in a corrosion process is called the
What is the typical exterior corrosion protection method for Ductile Iron Pipe?
Sacrificial Anodes must be