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How many pounds does a gallon of water weigh?
8.34 lbs/gallon

How many pounds does a cubic foot of water weigh?
62.4 lbs/cubic foot

How many gallons are in a cubic foot?
7.48 gallons/cubic foot

What is the formula for the area of a circle?
A=0.785 D^{2}

What is the area of a triangle?
A= base x height/2

What is the area of a trapezoid? (a canal is a trapezoid)
A= (a+b)h/2 or bh/2

What is the circumference (perimeter) of a circle?
C = 3.14 x D

What is the formula for the volume of a rectangular tank, in cubic feet?
 V =Length, in feet x Width, in feet x Height, in feet
 or V =LWH

What is the formula for volume, in cubic feet, of a cylindrical tank or pipeline?
 V =0.785D^{2}H or V =0.785D^{2}L
 (H= height of a tank or L=length of pipe, in feet)

What is the formula for the amount of gallons a cylindrical tank or pipeline can contain?
 V =0.785D^{2}H x 7.48 gal/cubic foot
 V =0.785D^{2}L x 7.48 gal/cubic foot

What is the quantity formula?
 Q =AV
 Q =quantity or cubic feet per second
 A =area
 V =velocity usually in feet per second

What is the pound formula?
Mgd x 8.34 lbs/gallon x ppm = lbs per day/ % available

What does Mgd mean?
Million gallons per day

What does ppm mean?
Parts per million (one part in a million parts)

What is another name for ppm?
Milligram per liter (mg/L), where 1 mg/L = 1 ppm

How do you calculate percentages?
Percent = part/whole

How can you calculate Mgd when you know cubic feet per second (cfs)?
Cfs x 0.646 = Mgd

How many ppm are in 1%?
 1% = 10,000 ppm
 or 10,000 mg/L

How much is one billing unit?
1 CCF or 748 gallons

what is the detention time formula?
Dt = volume/flow

How many minutes are in a day?
1440 minutes per day

How many Liters are in a gallon?
3.785 Liters/gallon

How many milliliters are in a Liter?
1,000 mL/Liter

How do you convert feet of water column into pressure, in pounds per square inch?
Feet of water x 0.433 = psi

What is the relationship between chlorine dosage, demand, and residual?
Dosage = Demand + Residual

How many square feet are in an acre?
43,560 square feet

How many cubic feet are in an acrefoot?
43,560 cubic feet

How many gallons of water are in an acrefoot?
43,560 cubic feet x 7.48 gallons/cubic foot = 325,828.8 gallons

What is the water horsepower formula?
whp = gpm x fthead/ 3,960

How do you convert degrees Fahrenheit into Celsius?
(F + 40) x 5/9  40 = C

How do you convert Celsious into Fahrenheit?
(F + 40) x 9/5  40 = F

How do you convert ppm into grains per gallon that's used in water softening?
ppm/17.1 = gpg

How would you determine a filtration rate, in gallons per minute per square foot?
gpm/sq.ft. = flow,in gpm/ surface area, sq.ft.

How would you determine the amount of pounds of "active" ingredients per gallon when you know a liquid's active ingrediend percentage?
percent x weight of water x specific gravity = lbs. active ingredients

What is the relationship between two liquids, when the volumes and concentrations are partially known?
C_{1}V_{1} = C_{2}C_{2}

Secondary water quality standards are primarily concerned with
Aesthetics (taste, color, odor, etc.)

Surge Tanks provide what function in a water distribution system?
Mitigate the impacts of water hammer

An Elevated Tank is
Elevated above the pressure zone

The term "MCL" means
Maximum contaminant level

A clear well provides
Storage of treated or filtered water from a treatment plant.

Any of the bacteria within the coliform bacterial group can be considered as
An indicator of pathogenic organisms

A water storage facility is classified as a Standpipe if
It has a height greater than its diameter.

What term describes water that is suitable for drinking?
Potable

what is one of the primary causes of water quality deterioration in a potable water storage reservoir?
Poor Mixing or Circulation of Reservoir Contents

What is the term for water samples collected at an individual location at a specific time?
Grab Samples

Bacteria that cause disease and other health impacts to humans are known as
Pathogens

What are the three types of recommended inspections for Potable Water Storage Tanks?
Routine, Periodic, Comprehensive

A crossconnection is defined as a connection between...
a potable water system and a nonpotable water system.

When referring to pumps and motors, what does the term "wiretowater efficiency" mean?
Overall effiency of the motor and pump assembly

Within the same pressure zone as elevation increases pressure in a pipeline will...
Decrease

Backpressure is caused by?
Higher pressure in the unapproved water supply than in the domestic system

The most common type of water distribution pump is the
Centrifugal Pump

The Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) at any point in a destribution system is made up of the following two components:
Elevation and Pressure Head

An open vertical drop, or empty space, that separates a drinking (potable) water supply to be protected from another water system is referred to as an
Air gap

The submerged pumping unit in a well, including the shaft, impellers, and housing is called
The Pump Bowl

Which of the following is a measure of the smoothness of a pipe?
C Factor

What backflow prevention device has a center relief valve?
Reduced pressure backflow assembly

What is the rotating element in a pump?
The Impeller

What causes the Hydraulic Grade Line to slope downward?
Friction Losses

A reverse flow condition which causes water to flow back into the potable water system from any source other than the intended source is called?
Backflow

Total Dynamic Head is
The Total Head added by the pump

The term used to describe the vertical distance, in feet, equivalent to the pressure at a specific point in a hydraulic system is
Head

Which pipe extension method does not require an interruption in water service?
Wet tap

Water quality in a water distribution system means:
 Free of Disease and Toxic Chemicals.
 Attractive in Taste and Appearance.
 Satisfying to Customers.

Each is a type of water distribution system storage facility:
 Elevated Tank
 Standpipe
 Clear Well

What are the two main objectives of a water distribution system?
Adequate Flow with High Water Quality.

The terms Grid, Loop, and Tree are
Types of Water Distribution System Layout Patterns

Disease causing bacteria are known as
Pathogens

What is one of the primary purposes of reservoir storage?
Equalizing Supply and Demand.

What is the recommended minimum water pressure in a distribution system at any time, including fire flow conditions?
20 psi

Three typical water distribution system pipe materials
 Ductile Iron
 PVC
 Asbestos Cement

The maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total trihalomethanes is
80 parts per billion

What is a typical cause of water hammer?
 Closing a valve too fast
 Stopping Pumps
 Closing Fire Hydrants too fast

What fitting is used to create one new branch in a water line?
Tee

What does the Total Coliform Rule require in response to a positive sample for Total Coliforms?
Repeat sampling

Causes of lost water in distribution system pipelines:
 Flushing
 Fire Fighting
 Leaks

Typical reservoir components:
 Overflow Pipe
 Inlet/Outlet Pipe
 Air Vent

Cathodic protection means protection against
Corrosion

On what type of pipe is tuberculation most likely to occur?
Cast Iron Pipe

By regulation which type of water source of supply requires treatment by filtration prior to delivery to water consumers?
Surface Water

For best results the flushing velocity for standard flushing programs should be
2.5  3.5 psi

What are the typical potential impacts of a mainline pipe failure?
 Lost Water
 Water Contamination
 Liability

A Positive Bacteriological Sample means:
Presence of bacteriological contamination

The metal component that loses metal in a corrosion process is called the
Anode

What is the typical exterior corrosion protection method for Ductile Iron Pipe?
Polyethylene Wrap

Sacrificial Anodes must be
periodically replaced

