AP Euro Chapter 15

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Anonymous
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107683
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AP Euro Chapter 15
Updated:
2011-10-10 00:04:04
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ap euro
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McKay Chapter 15- Exploration
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  1. Turkish Ottoman Empire
    • (r. 1451-1481), 1453
    • Who- empire of Middle East, comp- Persian

    • whats-
    • captured Constantinople in MAy 1453(-->Istanbul-capital)
    • controlled sea trade (all over)
    • held invincible armies
    • explained missionary fervor (Christians)

    • Whys:
    • raised economic concerns
    • Europe-needed new trade routes
    • captured largest most powerful city--> raise concern

  2. Ptolemy's "Geography"
    • second- century work, 1410
    • who- work that synthesized classic knowledge of geo.

    • Whats-
    • introduced the worlds as round
    • used latitude/longitude (position)
    • re-introduced by ARab scholars- 1410
    • allowed creation of more accurate maps

    • Whys
    • connection to Ren (classic culture)
    • using past as experience
    • new tech.
  3. Prince Henry the Navigator
    • 1394-1460
    • Who-directed explorations/expansions of Portuguese empire

    • Whats-
    • sponsored expeditions
    • 1420's- directed settlement on Atlantic islands- Madeira/Azores
    • 1443-founded settlement at Arguin in N Africa
    • founded sugar plantations, enslaved Africans/gold
    • Whys-
    • growth of empire/power
    • sponsored- didn't lose hope
    • fully controlled flow of gold
  4. Bartholmew Diaz& Vasco de Gama
    • 1487/ 1497(?)
    • Who-explorers attempting to find way to India (from W Africa)
    • Whats-
    • Diaz-attempted to sail around "CApe of Good Hope" (S. tip of Africa--storms)
    • Gama- succeeded in rounding tip
    • found part of India (calicut)...spices/cloth
    • whys-
    • tension between Portuguese/Indians..trading
    • proved possible to sail around tip
  5. Christopher Columbus
    • 1451-1506
    • Who- discovered islands near Americas by mistake

    • Whats-
    • worked as a mapmaker (experienced/knowledgeable)
    • wanted trading route to Asian (approval 1492)
    • Oct 12- named Bahamas San Salvador- gave beads
    • Oct. 28 Cuba- saw gold.. to spain
    • returned/ enslaved people&brought colonization

    • Whys-
    • discovered new lands
    • opened doors for exploring
    • spread agriculture/livestock
  6. Treaty of Tordesillas
    • 1494
    • Who- resolved conflicts of the New world
    • Whats-
    • Pope Alexander IV issued: Spain-W, Portuguese- E of imaginary line
    • 1500- cabral landed on coast of Brazil
    • claimed territory as Portuguese
    • Whys
    • peace- no war
    • advantage for Portuguese
    • recognized the New World
  7. Ferdinand Magellan
    • 1480-1521
    • Who- died trying to circumnavigate the globe
    • Whats-
    • tried to find sea routed to SPices of Morocco's from E Asia
    • sailed through straits =rough
    • discovered new ocean- Pacific ("peaceful")
    • ran into the Philippines-->death
    • Whys-
    • new understanding of Pacific ocean
    • concentration---> exploit new territories
  8. Hernando Cortes and Francisco Pizarro
    • 1485-1547; 1475-1541
    • Who- conquistadors intent on taking over Mexica Empire/ Inca Empire
    • Whats-
    • (c) landed and received gifts (peacE?) 1519
    • forged alliances w/ oppressed kingdoms (massacre)
    • marched to CApital- Montezuma=dead.. won conquest 1521
    • (p)- landed in peru (1532) bribe gone wrong- Atahulapa=dead (1553)
    • marched to capital- alliances
    • whys-
    • two of greatest empires fall
    • fragility shown
    • new interactions with new world
  9. Encomienda System
    • ca. 1500- abolished 1531
    • who- system of legalized slavery
    • whats-
    • employed Native Americans as workers
    • provided food and shelter
    • worked haaard---> malnutrition--> disease--> death
    • abolished in 1531
    • Whys-
    • minorities/oppression
  10. Columbian Exchange
    • starting 1493
    • who- exchange of food, animals., and disease b/w old/new
    • whats-
    • brought sugar, rices, bananas, wheat, grapes, olives, dandelions
    • exported food items grown
    • 1493- introduced horses, cattle sheep, dogs, pigs, chickens, and goats (work)
    • (disease) devastated new world- epidemic

    • Whys-
    • efficiency increase
    • surplus
    • POP! severely affected
    • growth of nation "State"
  11. The Sugar Plantation
    • 1490- 1530
    • Who- grown in New World by enslaved Africans
    • whats-
    • demanded highly (growing POP!) but hard to grow
    • planted by hand/ never fallow
    • imported Africans to do work- crush canes with roller mill
    • crammed ships- raise death/disease-->weakness
    • Whys-
    • start of slavery
    • tech-->efficiency
  12. Potosi Silver Mine
    • 1545-1647
    • who-silver mine found in Spanish N- led to inflation in Europe
    • Whats-
    • 1550- yielded 60% of silver in worlds
    • begun inflation (not enough food/ POP raise)
    • King Philip II paid off debts with silver
    • caused inflation in rest of Europe
    • Whys-
    • affected all of Europe
    • china now controlled most of silver
    • affected poor a lot
    • global economy/in'tl banking system
  13. Dutch East India Co.
    • 1602-???(1660?)
    • who- desire for the Dutch to control spices... &more

    • Whats-
    • assisted Indonesian princes--->agreement to control spices
    • 1660- expelled Portuguese from lands
    • 1621- wished to be part of NW/ expel P from
    • seized silver ships and Brazil/Carribean-->slavery

    • Whys
    • underdogs
    • nation state power increase
    • control
  14. William Shakespeare
    • 1564
    • Who- Renman makes racial criticisms

    • whats-
    • supported classical culture, individualism, &humanism
    • conveyed national consciousness (richard III) and human problems (macbeth)
    • wrote of "Moor of Venice" (othello); Muslim from africa
    • depicted othello as black/racial comments
    • criticized racial intolerance in The Tempest

    • whys-
    • popular among time- affect
    • showed the amazingess/= of people
    • made people think
  15. Michel de Montaigne
    • 1533-1592
    • Who- frenchman starting curiosity/human's doubt in selves

    • whats-
    • invented new style of writing- essay ("essayer" to test/to try)
    • 1580- published Essays (personal reflection on ancient texts/ morality)
    • revealed that cultures aren't better than each other
    • opened up questioning

    • whys-
    • equality- not met for 100's of yrs
    • cultures equal??
    • era of doubt
    • connection to Ren

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