Microbio Test 2

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Author:
bsutton2
ID:
107701
Filename:
Microbio Test 2
Updated:
2011-10-11 16:36:45
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Bacteria microbio
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Bacteria
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  1. Staphylococcus
    • Gram +
    • Cocci
    • Clusters, pairs
    • Facultative Aerobe
    • Catalase +
    • Halotolerant
    • On skin
    • Some species pathogenic
    • Characterized by color and hemolysis
  2. Micrococcus
    • Gram +
    • Cocci
    • Clusters (tetrads, look like grapes)
    • Catalase +
    • Strict aerobe
    • Non-pathogenic
  3. Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus
    • Gram +
    • Cocci
    • Ferments peptones not sugar
    • Obligate anaerobe
    • Normal in intestinal/vaginal flora
    • Pepto translates to chains
  4. Streptococcus
    • Gram +
    • Cocci
    • Chains
    • Catalase -
    • Aerotolerant
    • Ferments lactic acid
    • 2 Groups: alpha or ß lysis
    • Also separated by immunological groups (A-O)
    • Can be encapsulated
    • Causes Scarlet Fever, FEDs, bacteria pneumonia
  5. Bacillus
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Endospore forming
    • Aerobic or facultative aerobic
    • Capsulated
    • Found in soil
    • Source of bacitracin and other antibiotics
    • Source of anthrax
  6. Clostridium
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Endospore forming
    • Found in anoxic soil and intestines
    • Grouped by formenting products
    • Produces most potentent toxin (Botulism), tetnus, gangrene
    • Some resistant to purell
  7. Lactobacillus
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Produces lactic acid
    • Does not form spores
    • Acidophile
  8. Listeria
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Short chains, non spore forming
    • Psychrotolerant - refrigeration doesn't slow growth
    • Increased risk of spontaneous abortion
  9. Mycobacterium
    • Gram+
    • Rod
    • Unique cell wall allows them to be stained with mycolic acid (pink/red)
    • Causes TB, leprosy
  10. Mycoplasma
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Too small to be seen with light microscope
    • Small genome
    • No cell wall
    • Causes walking pneumonia
  11. Corynbacterium
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Aerobic
    • Non-motile
    • Club/V-shaped
    • Causes Diptheriae
  12. Propionibacterium
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Anaerobic
    • Ferment lactic acid to produce proprionic acid and CO2
    • Used in swiss cheese, causes acne
  13. Eubacterium
    • Gram+
    • Rod
    • Obligate anaerobe
    • Major normal flora of intestines
    • Opportunistic pathogen
  14. Actinomyces
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Mainly in soil
    • Forms branching filaments (almost like fungus)
    • Do not form spores
    • Causes Madura foot
  15. Streptomyces
    • Gram +
    • Rod
    • Mainly in soil
    • 500+ species
    • Form branching filaments
    • Forms true spores (fungus like)
    • Causes Madura foot
    • Produces many antibiotics
  16. Pseudomonas
    • Gram -
    • Rod (straight or slightly curved)
    • Polar flagella
    • No gas production from glucose
    • Acid from glucose in oxygen
    • Oxidase +
    • Common in hottubs (resistant to Cl)
  17. Legionella
    • Gram -
    • Rod
    • Polar flagella
    • Obligate aerobe
    • Does not ferment surgars
    • Transmitted through dropletts
    • Causes pneumonia (Legionnaire's disease)
  18. Neisseria
    • Gram -
    • Cocci in pairs
    • Non-motil (no flagella)
    • Virulent strains have pili
    • Causes gonorrhea, mengioccocal meningitis
  19. Brucella
    • Gram -
    • Small Rod
    • Non-motile
    • Each species has preferred host
    • Causes abortions in cattle
  20. Bordetella
    • Gram -
    • Small Coccobacillus
    • Some flagellated
    • Obligate aerobe
    • B. pertussis - whooping cought
    • B. bronchiseptica - kennel cough
    • Vaccine but not lifetime
  21. Francisella
    • Gram -
    • Small coccobacillus
    • Obligate aerobe
    • Causes tularemia (rabbit fever)
  22. Enteric Bacteria
    • Gram -
    • Straight rods
    • Facultative aerobes
    • Fermentation of glucose
    • Catalase +
    • Oxidase -
  23. Escherichia coli
    • Gram -
    • Straight rod
    • Peritrichous flagella
    • Indole + (add tryptophan, observe if indole forms)
    • Gas from glucose
    • Acid from lactose
    • Normal in intestinal flora
    • Pathogenic strains are capsulated, found in contaminated water and beef
  24. Shingella
    • Gram -
    • Straight rods
    • Non-motile
    • No gas from glucose, no acid from lactose
    • Causes shingellosis or bacillary dysentery (sever diarrhea)
    • Associated with poor sanitation
  25. Salmonella
    • Gram -
    • Rod
    • Motile
    • Produces H2S (Reduction of Sulfur)
    • Salmonella enteritidis found in GI tract of birds, rodents and reptiles - causes of salmonellosis gasatroenteritis
  26. Klebsiella
    • Gram -
    • Rod
    • Non-motile
    • Urease + (breakdown of Urea to ammonia)
    • Found in soil
    • pneumoniae forms capsule and can cause penumonia (50% fatal), UTI, and infant diarrheas
  27. Enterobacter aerogenes
    • Gram -
    • Rod
    • Yellow pigment
    • Butanediol fermentation (Vogues-Proskauer test +)
    • Motile
    • Found in water and sewage
  28. Serratia
    • Gram -
    • Rod
    • Motile
    • Red pigment
    • DNase +
    • Gelatinase +
    • Opportunistic infection
  29. Proteus
    • Gram -
    • Rod
    • Highly motile with pertrichous flagella
    • Urease +
    • Swarming
    • Causes UTIs
  30. Yersinia
    • Gram -
    • Short thick rod with bipolar staining
    • Motile at RT, Non-Motil at 37ºC
    • Urease+
    • Cause of the bubonic plague
    • Prevalent in rodents
    • Humans are accidental hosts
  31. Vibrio
    • Gram -
    • Comma (curved rod)
    • Oxidase +
    • Fermentative
    • Polar or pertitrichous flagella
    • Aquatic
    • Causes cholera
    • Bioluminescent in oxygen
  32. Haemophilus
    • Gram -
    • Short rod
    • Non-motile
    • May form capsule
    • Needs blood proteins to grow
    • Causes chancroid, flu like symptoms
  33. Gardnerella
    • Gram -/+?
    • Tiny rod
    • Normal in females
    • Can be the side effect of antibiotic treatment
  34. Bacteroides
    • Gram -
    • Short rod
    • Obligate anaerobe
    • Non-sporulating
    • Symbiotic relationship in intestine, breaks down sugars
    • Opportunistic infection
  35. Spirilla
    • Gram -
    • Spiral shaped
    • Motile
    • Single or multiple polar flagella
  36. Campylobacter
    • Gram -
    • Spiral
    • Microaerophilic (3-15% O2)
    • Optimum growth at 42ºC
    • 2nd leading cause of foodborn illness (after salmonella)
    • Severe diarrhea
  37. Helicobacter
    • Gram -
    • Closely related to campylobacter
    • Microaerophile
    • Knobs on end of flagella (pathogenic)
    • Cause of stomach ulcers and potentially stomach cancer
    • Survives acidic conditions of the stomach using Urease
  38. Spirochetes
    • Gram -
    • Motile
    • Tightly coiled
    • Found in aquatic environments
    • Endo-flagella - flagella inside the lining of the cell
  39. Treponema
    • Gram -
    • Spirochete
    • Anaerobic
    • Very thin - difficult to see with light microscope
    • Treponema palladium causes syphilis
  40. Borrelia
    • Gram -
    • Spirochete
    • Microaerophilic
    • Large spirals easy to see
    • Causes relapsing fever carried by lice and ticks and lyme disease
  41. Leptospira
    • Gram -
    • Spirochete
    • Aerobic
    • Thin, finely coiled, bent at end
    • Causes leptospirosis (zoonotic), from contaminated urine
  42. Rickettsias
    • Gram -
    • Obligate intracellular
    • Carried by arthopod vectors
    • Highly infectious
    • Causes Rickettsial diseases - Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus(NOT typhoid fever), cat scratch fever, trench fever, erlichiosis, Q fever
  43. Chlamydia
    • Gram - (but too small to be stained)
    • Intracellular
    • Extremely small
    • No arthopod vectors
    • Airborn
    • Causes trachoma, non-gonococcal urethritis, psittacosis (bird disease, zoonotic), respiratory syndromes, and most common STD and leading preventable blindness
  44. Thermotoga
    • Gram -
    • Rod with a 'toga'
    • Optimum growth at 80ºC
    • Anaerobic
    • Fermentative and anaerobic respiration using Fe3+
  45. Tabacoo Mosaic Virus (TMV)
    • ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Rod shaped virion with helical symmetry
    • Only encodes 4 proteins
  46. Rhinovirus
    • ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Small, naked, polyhedral
    • Causes common cold
    • Cannot survive in stomach
  47. Polio
    • ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Small, naked, polyhedral
    • Resistant to many chemical at low pH (digestive tract)
    • Invades blood, lymph, and nervous systems
  48. Hepatitus A
    • ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Small, naked, polyhedral
    • Spread through contaminated food and water
    • Body can create an immunity
  49. Norwalk virus (Norovirus)
    • ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Small
    • Naked
    • Common on cruise ships
    • Fecal or person to person contamination
  50. Togavirus
    • ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Small
    • Enveloped (hence toga)
    • Synthesized in cytoplasm and buds
    • Causes rubella (German measles)
  51. Flavivirus
    • ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Enveloped
    • Transmitted by mosquistos and ticks
    • Causes yellow fever, West Nile virus, and Dengue virus
  52. Hepatitis C
    • ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Enveloped
    • Contracted from blood contact
    • No vaccine
  53. Coronavirus
    • ssRNA
    • + Sense
    • Enveloped
    • Spiked (hence crown)
    • Largest genome
    • Common cold and SARS
  54. Retrovirus
    • Enveloped
    • Spherical
    • 2 compies of ssRNA
    • + sense
    • Inserts into DNA genome using reverse transcriptase
    • RNA tumor virusses, HTLV, HIV
  55. Rhabdovirus (Rabies)
    • ssRNA
    • - Sense
    • Enveloped
    • Helical-rod shaped (bullet shaped)
  56. Paramyxovirus
    • ssRNA
    • - Sense
    • Medium Sized
    • Enveloped
    • Causes mumpts, measles, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza, viral pneumonia, bronchitis
  57. Influzena A and B (Orthomyxoviruses)
    • ssRNA
    • - Sense
    • Enveloped
    • Helical to spherical
    • Affinity for mucus
    • Genome in 8 segments (allows for genetic drift)
    • Contains surface antigens
  58. Ebola and Marburg virus (Filoviruses)
    • ssRNA
    • - Sense
    • Enveloped
    • Filamentous
  59. Hantavirus (Bunyavirus)
    • ssRNA
    • - Sense
    • Medium
    • Enveloped
    • Spherical
    • Genome in 3 segments
    • Rodents are typical host
  60. Rotavirus
    • dsRNA
    • Small
    • Naked
    • Polyhedral
    • Diarrhea under 2 years old, gastrointestinal
  61. Adenovirus
    • dsDNA, linear
    • Medium
    • Icosahderal
    • Naked
    • 12 antenna-like fibers
    • DNA enter nucleus
    • Highly resistant to chemical
    • Causes respiratory and GI disease
  62. Herpesvirus
    • dsDNA, linear
    • Large
    • Enveloped
    • Exhibits latency
    • Causes oral herpes and gential herpes (simplex), chickenpox and shingles (varicella-zoster), roseola, Burkitt's lymphoma (Epstein Barr), Kaposi's sarcoma
  63. Poxvirus
    • dsDNA, linear
    • Very large
    • Enveloped
    • Causes skin lesions, small pox, cowpox, monkeypox
    • Vaccine
  64. Papovavirus (Papilloma, polyoma, vacuolating)
    • dsDNA, circular
    • Small
    • Naked
    • Replicates in the nucleus
    • HPV (Causes warts, cervical cancer, gardisil), SV40
  65. Hepatitis B (hepadnavirus)
    • dsDNA, circular with some ssDNA
    • Small
    • Enveloped with spikes
    • Polyhedral
    • Can only be pased through fluid exchange
    • Can lead to liver cancer
  66. Parvovirus
    • ssDNA, linear
    • Small
    • Naked
    • Often requires co-infection
    • Bad for dogs
    • Causes Fifth's disease (slap cheek)
  67. Hemolysis Test
    • alpha - partial lysis (greening)
    • ß - complete lysis (clearing)
    • gamma - no lysis
  68. Indole Test
    • Tests for metabolism of tryptophan to indole
    • Indole turns pink
  69. Hydrogen sulfide test
    • Reduction of H2S using thiosulfate reductase (in cell).
    • H2S reacts with FeS to form black percipitate
  70. Urease Test
    • Urease catalyzes the breakdown of urea to ammonia (basic) and bicarbonate
    • Add pH indication, basic solution (pink) is urease +

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