Lab 4-Cardiovascular system-physiology

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Lab 4-Cardiovascular system-physiology
2011-10-17 02:52:04
Cardiovascular system physiology

Lab #4
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  1. Blood moves fastes in which vessel? Why?
    Artery because of pressure
  2. Blood moves slowest in which vessel? Why?
    Capillaries because the stream is not constant-precapilary sphincter
  3. Considering a corresponding artery and vein which has a smaller diameter? Why?
    Artery because of pressure and return flow
  4. Volume pulse
    • The change in blood volume with each cardiac cycle
    • Heart rate and blood flow
  5. Amplitude
    Height (constriction/dialation)
  6. Frequency
    Speed (faster or slower) change in time (HR)
  7. Dicrotic notch
    • Forms a small second peak adter the first major peak if the volume pulse recording
    • Caused by elastic rebound/respiration
  8. The slope of the rising edge of the volume pulse is much steeper than the slope of the falling edge. Why?
    Rising=active contaction following relaxation= passive
  9. What changes in the finger are repressented by the amplitude changes?
    • Blood flow
    • Heart rate
    • Blood pressure
    • Movement
  10. TIme at peak Y - Time at peak X = Elapsed time
  11. Heart rate
    5 beats/elapsed time x 60 sec/min = HR (bpm)
  12. Does the ampolitude rande increase or decrease right after excersize? Why?
    Decreases; less blood flow through fingers more diverted to muscles
  13. WHat does the change in volume pulse amplitude and hr indicate about changes in the volume of blood flowing in the finger?
    Decreases amplitude=decrease in blood flow
  14. How does the amplitude of the colume pulse for the cooled finger compare with the recording at normal room temp?
    Decreas=periferial vasoconstriction
  15. Explain the difference in terms o the effect of cold on peripheral blood vessels?
    Vaso constriction in decreased temp
  16. What happens to the volume pusle amplitude when the finger is heated?
    Increases due to vaso dilation
  17. Effects of smoking
    • Increases peripheral vasoconstriction
    • Nicotine=stimulant
  18. What receptors and where are they?
    nicotinic colnergic; sym and parasym post ganglionic neurons
  19. Where can you feel for the pulse?
    • Radial artery: groove medial to the styloid process of the radius
    • Carotid artery: the side of the neck
    • Temporal artery: on the temple above and to the outside of the eye
    • Brachial artery: inner side of the biceps
    • Popliteal artery: behind the knee
  20. Sphygmomanometer- instrument used to indirectly measure peripheral blood pressure that consists of
    • Compression bag surrounded by an unyielding cuff for application of the extra-arterial pressure.
    • Mercury manometer or pressure gauge by which applied pressure is read.
    • Blub for inflation od the cuff in order to create pressure in the system.
    • Valve to release the air from the cuff.
    • Attachments for connectin the cudd to the manometer and bulb.
  21. Systolic pressure
    • Peak blood pressure measured during ventricular systole
    • First sound heard when releasing pressure
  22. Diastolic pressure
    • Minimum blood pressure at the end of ventricular diastole
    • Pressure at which sound stops
  23. What pressure do you pump the cuff to when taking bp?
    180 mm
  24. Where do you place the cuff and the stethoscope?
    • Cuff: 1 in above the antecubital space (elbow)
    • Stethoscope: over brachial artery below the cuff
  25. Pulse pressure
    • Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
    • Diastolic-systolic
  26. Pt has edema in the extremities. Which ventricle is damaged?
    • Right b/c lower than normal pressure causes pooling (edema)
    • Left would cause edema of the lungs
  27. 5000ml blood with 500ml blood loss. What cardiovascular changed would occur?
    • Decrease in blood pressure
    • Sympathetic
    • Heart rate beats faster
    • Increase vasoconstriction
    • Vasomotor reflex-hypovolemic shock
  28. 5000ml blood with 500ml blood loss. Continual blood loss. What is expected to happen?
    • Noncompensated shock
    • Increase HR
    • Perivaso constriction
    • Increase thirst
    • Increase aldosterone
    • Increase ADH
  29. Spleen slide
    • Capsule: outer connective tissue
    • Trabeculae: inward extensions of the capsule
    • Red pulp: no whirls
    • White pulp: purple whirls
  30. Spleen
    Located left side under ribs
  31. Lymph node slide
    • Cortex: outer region of the node
    • Germinal centers: globular masses
    • Medulla: inner region of the node
  32. Lymph node
    • Located tonsils, GI tract, vaginal canal
    • Amywhere that has contact to the outside environment
  33. Lymphoid Nodule slide
    Peyers patches: darkly stained purple circles
  34. Thymus
    Esophageal area
  35. Tonsils
    • Pharyngeal: top (posterior wall nasopharynx)
    • Palatine: middle (oral cavity/pharynx junction)
    • Lingual: bottom (near base of tongue)
  36. Thoracic duct
    Dumps into right atria
  37. Cisterna chyli
    Medial to the spleen
  38. Lymph vessel
  39. Cervical lymph nodes
  40. Submandibular lymph nodes
  41. Axillary lymph nodes
  42. Inguinal lymph node
  43. Why are the tonsils located where they are at?
    To protect against airborne pathogens
  44. Why do the cervical lymph nodes become swollen and tender during a bad cold or sinus infection?
    Increased production of lymphocytes