Lab 4-Cardiovascular system-physiology
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Blood moves fastes in which vessel? Why?
Artery because of pressure
Blood moves slowest in which vessel? Why?
Capillaries because the stream is not constant-precapilary sphincter
Considering a corresponding artery and vein which has a smaller diameter? Why?
Artery because of pressure and return flow
- The change in blood volume with each cardiac cycle
- Heart rate and blood flow
Speed (faster or slower) change in time (HR)
- Forms a small second peak adter the first major peak if the volume pulse recording
- Caused by elastic rebound/respiration
The slope of the rising edge of the volume pulse is much steeper than the slope of the falling edge. Why?
Rising=active contaction following relaxation= passive
What changes in the finger are repressented by the amplitude changes?
- Blood flow
- Heart rate
- Blood pressure
TIme at peak Y - Time at peak X = Elapsed time
5 beats/elapsed time x 60 sec/min = HR (bpm)
Does the ampolitude rande increase or decrease right after excersize? Why?
Decreases; less blood flow through fingers more diverted to muscles
WHat does the change in volume pulse amplitude and hr indicate about changes in the volume of blood flowing in the finger?
Decreases amplitude=decrease in blood flow
How does the amplitude of the colume pulse for the cooled finger compare with the recording at normal room temp?
Explain the difference in terms o the effect of cold on peripheral blood vessels?
Vaso constriction in decreased temp
What happens to the volume pusle amplitude when the finger is heated?
Increases due to vaso dilation
Effects of smoking
- Increases peripheral vasoconstriction
What receptors and where are they?
nicotinic colnergic; sym and parasym post ganglionic neurons
Where can you feel for the pulse?
- Radial artery: groove medial to the styloid process of the radius
- Carotid artery: the side of the neck
- Temporal artery: on the temple above and to the outside of the eye
- Brachial artery: inner side of the biceps
- Popliteal artery: behind the knee
Sphygmomanometer- instrument used to indirectly measure peripheral blood pressure that consists of
- Compression bag surrounded by an unyielding cuff for application of the extra-arterial pressure.
- Mercury manometer or pressure gauge by which applied pressure is read.
- Blub for inflation od the cuff in order to create pressure in the system.
- Valve to release the air from the cuff.
- Attachments for connectin the cudd to the manometer and bulb.
- Peak blood pressure measured during ventricular systole
- First sound heard when releasing pressure
- Minimum blood pressure at the end of ventricular diastole
- Pressure at which sound stops
What pressure do you pump the cuff to when taking bp?
Where do you place the cuff and the stethoscope?
- Cuff: 1 in above the antecubital space (elbow)
- Stethoscope: over brachial artery below the cuff
- Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
Pt has edema in the extremities. Which ventricle is damaged?
- Right b/c lower than normal pressure causes pooling (edema)
- Left would cause edema of the lungs
5000ml blood with 500ml blood loss. What cardiovascular changed would occur?
- Decrease in blood pressure
- Heart rate beats faster
- Increase vasoconstriction
- Vasomotor reflex-hypovolemic shock
5000ml blood with 500ml blood loss. Continual blood loss. What is expected to happen?
- Noncompensated shock
- Increase HR
- Perivaso constriction
- Increase thirst
- Increase aldosterone
- Increase ADH
- Capsule: outer connective tissue
- Trabeculae: inward extensions of the capsule
- Red pulp: no whirls
- White pulp: purple whirls
Located left side under ribs
Lymph node slide
- Cortex: outer region of the node
- Germinal centers: globular masses
- Medulla: inner region of the node
- Located tonsils, GI tract, vaginal canal
- Amywhere that has contact to the outside environment
Lymphoid Nodule slide
Peyers patches: darkly stained purple circles
- Pharyngeal: top (posterior wall nasopharynx)
- Palatine: middle (oral cavity/pharynx junction)
- Lingual: bottom (near base of tongue)
Dumps into right atria
Medial to the spleen
Cervical lymph nodes
Submandibular lymph nodes
Axillary lymph nodes
Inguinal lymph node
Why are the tonsils located where they are at?
To protect against airborne pathogens
Why do the cervical lymph nodes become swollen and tender during a bad cold or sinus infection?
Increased production of lymphocytes
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