Quiz One Bioprocess

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icimmy
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107741
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Quiz One Bioprocess
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2011-10-10 09:43:46
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Quiz One Bioprocess
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Quiz One over Chapters One and Two
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  1. What is Bioprocessing?
    A technique in which microorganisms, living cells, or their components are used as bio-catalyst to produce a desired end product.
  2. What are some disciplines related to bioprocessing?
    • Biochemistry
    • Microbiology
    • Genetics
    • Molecular Biology
    • Engineering
  3. What the advantages of bioprocessing over chemical methods?
    • Complex organic molecules cant be produced by chemical means
    • Bioconversion has a higher yield
    • Operate at a lower temperature and pH
    • Isomeric compounds are easily excluded
    • Very Specific
  4. What are the disadvantages of bioprocessing over chemical means?
    • Easily contaminated
    • Requires separation of wanted product
    • Results in biohazard waste
    • Relatively slow process (many steps)
  5. What are the steps in bioprocessing?
    • Preparation Stage
    • Raw Material
    • Substrates
    • Medium
    • Conversion State
    • Biocatalysts
    • Downstream processing
    • Volume production
    • Purification
    • Final Product processing
  6. What are some cell types used in bioprocessing?
    • Bacteria (gram + and -)
    • Fungal
    • Mammalian
    • Plant
  7. What are properties of an organism that is relevant for bioprocessing?
    • Nature of Strain (Pathogenicity, Toxin Production, Strain Stability)
    • Genetics
    • Cell Culture Shape, Size and Morphology
    • Cell membrane and transport system
    • Cell nutrition
    • Cell Growth Kinetics
    • Correlation between growth and product formation
    • Presence of regulatory enzymes
    • Activities of intracellular and extracellular proteases
  8. What are enzymes?
    • Protein catalyst
    • Can be produced by bioprocessing
    • Affected by pH and Temperature
    • Very specific
    • Biodegradable
  9. What are enzyme properties in bioprocessing?
    • Specificity- substrate range
    • Stability- effect of pH and temperature range
    • Solubility- medium for reaction, hydrophobic vs. hydrophillic
    • Structure, charge and size- for purification and recovery
  10. What operations are involved in general bioprocessing?
    • Agitation and mixing
    • Heat transfer
    • Size reduction and enlargement
  11. What is agitation?
    Agitation is a process of mixing suspension of solids in a liquid to prevent chemical, physical and thermal gradients.
  12. What are two major causes of cell damage?
    • Hydrodynamic force or shear forces
    • Energy from bursting bubbles
  13. What are 2 types of impellers?
    • Radial flow- not as efficient
    • Axial flow (used for animal cells) lifts cells from the bottom
  14. What are the movement of mixers?
    • The entire container moves
    • Container is stationary with internal device rotating
    • A combination of the above two
  15. Which has large surface area to unit volume ratio, a large or small reactor? Which require addition of heat and which requires removal of heat?
    • Small reactors have large surface area and require addition of heat.
    • Large have small surface area and require removal of heat.
  16. What is distillation?
    It separates chemicals by the difference in how easily they vaporize
  17. What is distillation categories based on?
    • System composition- Binary and Multicomponent distillation
    • Processing mode- continuous or batch
    • Processing Sequence
    • -Stripping- removing Light from heavy
    • -Recification- removing Heavy from Light
    • -Fractionation- removing by Strip/Recti at the same time
    • -Complex Fractionation- a combination of all methods
  18. How do we reduce the size of cells?
    • Mills, roller, crushers
    • Tissue cutting, Homogenization, and Mincing or Extrusion
    • Microbial tissue breaking
  19. What is the purpose of size enlargement?
    • Reduce direct contact
    • Render powder free flowing
    • Prevent caking or lumping
  20. What are the methods for size enlargement?
    • Pressure compactment
    • Tumblers and mixer agglomeration
    • Spray dryers

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