Quiz One Bioprocess
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What is Bioprocessing?
A technique in which microorganisms, living cells, or their components are used as bio-catalyst to produce a desired end product.
What are some disciplines related to bioprocessing?
- Molecular Biology
What the advantages of bioprocessing over chemical methods?
- Complex organic molecules cant be produced by chemical means
- Bioconversion has a higher yield
- Operate at a lower temperature and pH
- Isomeric compounds are easily excluded
- Very Specific
What are the disadvantages of bioprocessing over chemical means?
- Easily contaminated
- Requires separation of wanted product
- Results in biohazard waste
- Relatively slow process (many steps)
What are the steps in bioprocessing?
- Preparation Stage
- Raw Material
- Conversion State
- Downstream processing
- Volume production
- Final Product processing
What are some cell types used in bioprocessing?
- Bacteria (gram + and -)
What are properties of an organism that is relevant for bioprocessing?
- Nature of Strain (Pathogenicity, Toxin Production, Strain Stability)
- Cell Culture Shape, Size and Morphology
- Cell membrane and transport system
- Cell nutrition
- Cell Growth Kinetics
- Correlation between growth and product formation
- Presence of regulatory enzymes
- Activities of intracellular and extracellular proteases
What are enzymes?
- Protein catalyst
- Can be produced by bioprocessing
- Affected by pH and Temperature
- Very specific
What are enzyme properties in bioprocessing?
- Specificity- substrate range
- Stability- effect of pH and temperature range
- Solubility- medium for reaction, hydrophobic vs. hydrophillic
- Structure, charge and size- for purification and recovery
What operations are involved in general bioprocessing?
- Agitation and mixing
- Heat transfer
- Size reduction and enlargement
What is agitation?
Agitation is a process of mixing suspension of solids in a liquid to prevent chemical, physical and thermal gradients.
What are two major causes of cell damage?
- Hydrodynamic force or shear forces
- Energy from bursting bubbles
What are 2 types of impellers?
- Radial flow- not as efficient
- Axial flow (used for animal cells) lifts cells from the bottom
What are the movement of mixers?
- The entire container moves
- Container is stationary with internal device rotating
- A combination of the above two
Which has large surface area to unit volume ratio, a large or small reactor? Which require addition of heat and which requires removal of heat?
- Small reactors have large surface area and require addition of heat.
- Large have small surface area and require removal of heat.
What is distillation?
It separates chemicals by the difference in how easily they vaporize
What is distillation categories based on?
- System composition- Binary and Multicomponent distillation
- Processing mode- continuous or batch
- Processing Sequence
- -Stripping- removing Light from heavy
- -Recification- removing Heavy from Light
- -Fractionation- removing by Strip/Recti at the same time
- -Complex Fractionation- a combination of all methods
How do we reduce the size of cells?
- Mills, roller, crushers
- Tissue cutting, Homogenization, and Mincing or Extrusion
- Microbial tissue breaking
What is the purpose of size enlargement?
- Reduce direct contact
- Render powder free flowing
- Prevent caking or lumping
What are the methods for size enlargement?
- Pressure compactment
- Tumblers and mixer agglomeration
- Spray dryers
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