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What are the sections of the vertebral column and the number of vertebrae associated with each?
- 8 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar
- 5 sacral
- 1 coccygeal
What makes up the floor and roof of the thorax?
- floor = pelvic girdle
- roof = pectoral girdle
What are the categories and numbers of the pairs of ribs?
- true (1-7)- attached to vertebrae and sternum
- false (8-10)- attached to vertebrae and sternum
- floating (11-12)- attached only to vertebral column
What type of cartilage connects ribs to sternum?
Where does the trachea start?
What is the trachea made of?
Where does the trachea divide and into what?
- right and left bronchial tubes
What do the bronchial tubes divide into?
What do the aveoli do?
exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen
What is the right lobe of the lung structure?
superior, middle, and inferior
What is the left lobe of the lung structure?
superior and inferior
How does air move?
blood brings carbon dioxide from the rest of the body and releases carbon dioxide through the capillary into the alveoli, and the oxygen in the alveoli is taken up by the blood in the capillary to be transported to all the cells in the body
What is passive respiration?
not effortful and involves the diaphragm
What is forced respiration?
voluntary and uses many other muscles
What is the diaphragm?
- dome-shaped structure that separates thorax from abdomen
- primary structure of respiratory system
What is the diaphragm composed of?
central tendon surrounded by muscle
What are three holes for structures to pass?
- aortic hiatus: descending abdominal aorta
- esophageal hiatus: esophagus
- foramen vena cava: inferior vena cava
What are the points of origin?
- xiphoid process of sternum
- ribs 7-12
- vertebrae L1-L4
What is the point of insertion?
What is diaphragm motion?
- innervated by phrenic nerve, originating from spinal nerves C3-5
- muscles surrounding central tendon all contract (get shorter)
- the tendon cannot stretch, so the whole structure flattens downward
What are the primary accessory muslces of inspiration?
- external and internal intercostals
- interchondral portion
What are the primary accessory muscles of expiration?
- internal intercostal
- inerosseous portion
- innermost intercostal
What does 1 inspiration and 1 expiration equal?
What are the lung volumes?
- tidal volume
- inspiratory reserve volume
- expiratory reserve volume
- residual volume
- dead space air
What is tidal volume?
the volume of air exchanged in 1 cycle of respiration
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
the volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration
What is expiratory reserve volume?
the volume of air that can be expired following passive, tidal expiration
What is residual volume?
the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum exhalation
What is dead space air?
the volume of air within the conducting passageways that cannot be involved in gas exchange
What are the lung capacities?
- vital capacity
- functional residual capacity
- total lung capacity
- inspiratory capacity
What soft tissue structures are associated with respiration?
- nose and mouth
What is vital capacity?
represents the capacity available for speech/the total volume of air that can be inspired after a maximal expiration
What is functional residual capacity?
the volume of air remaining in the body after a passive exhalation
What is total lung capacity?
the sum of all the volumes
What is inspiratory capacity?
the maximum inspiratory volume possible after tidal expiration
What is alveolar pressure?
the pressure within the individual alveolus
What is intrapleural pressure?
the pressure between parietal and visceral pleurae
What is subglottal pressure?
the pressure below the vocal folds
What is intraoral pressure?
the pressure within the mouth
What happens to pressures when the vocal folds are open?
intraoral = subglottal = alveolar pressure
What happens to pressures when the vocal folds are closed?
subglottal pressure goes up and intraoral pressure goes down
What are the inspiration and expiration percentages during speech and normal respiration?
- speech: inspiration = 10% and expiration = 90%
- normal: inspiration = 40% and expiration = 60%