Anatomy quiz 4

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Anatomy quiz 4
2011-10-10 10:44:28

Anatomy of respiration
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  1. What are the sections of the vertebral column and the number of vertebrae associated with each?
    • 8 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 1 coccygeal
  2. What makes up the floor and roof of the thorax?
    • floor = pelvic girdle
    • roof = pectoral girdle
  3. What are the categories and numbers of the pairs of ribs?
    • true (1-7)- attached to vertebrae and sternum
    • false (8-10)- attached to vertebrae and sternum
    • floating (11-12)- attached only to vertebral column
  4. What type of cartilage connects ribs to sternum?
  5. *label vertebra picture
  6. Where does the trachea start?
  7. What is the trachea made of?
    hyaline cartilage
  8. Where does the trachea divide and into what?
    • carina
    • right and left bronchial tubes
  9. What do the bronchial tubes divide into?
  10. What do the aveoli do?
    exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen
  11. What is the right lobe of the lung structure?
    superior, middle, and inferior
  12. What is the left lobe of the lung structure?
    superior and inferior
  13. How does air move?
    blood brings carbon dioxide from the rest of the body and releases carbon dioxide through the capillary into the alveoli, and the oxygen in the alveoli is taken up by the blood in the capillary to be transported to all the cells in the body
  14. What is passive respiration?
    not effortful and involves the diaphragm
  15. What is forced respiration?
    voluntary and uses many other muscles
  16. What is the diaphragm?
    • dome-shaped structure that separates thorax from abdomen
    • primary structure of respiratory system
  17. What is the diaphragm composed of?
    central tendon surrounded by muscle
  18. What are three holes for structures to pass?
    • aortic hiatus: descending abdominal aorta
    • esophageal hiatus: esophagus
    • foramen vena cava: inferior vena cava
  19. What are the points of origin?
    • xiphoid process of sternum
    • ribs 7-12
    • vertebrae L1-L4
  20. What is the point of insertion?
    central tendon
  21. What is diaphragm motion?
    • innervated by phrenic nerve, originating from spinal nerves C3-5
    • muscles surrounding central tendon all contract (get shorter)
    • the tendon cannot stretch, so the whole structure flattens downward
  22. What are the primary accessory muslces of inspiration?
    • external and internal intercostals
    • interchondral portion
  23. What are the primary accessory muscles of expiration?
    • internal intercostal
    • inerosseous portion
    • innermost intercostal
  24. What does 1 inspiration and 1 expiration equal?
    respiratory cycle
  25. What are the lung volumes?
    • tidal volume
    • inspiratory reserve volume
    • expiratory reserve volume
    • residual volume
    • dead space air
  26. What is tidal volume?
    the volume of air exchanged in 1 cycle of respiration
  27. What is inspiratory reserve volume?
    the volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration
  28. What is expiratory reserve volume?
    the volume of air that can be expired following passive, tidal expiration
  29. What is residual volume?
    the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum exhalation
  30. What is dead space air?
    the volume of air within the conducting passageways that cannot be involved in gas exchange
  31. What are the lung capacities?
    • vital capacity
    • functional residual capacity
    • total lung capacity
    • inspiratory capacity
  32. What soft tissue structures are associated with respiration?
    • nose and mouth
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs
  33. What is vital capacity?
    represents the capacity available for speech/the total volume of air that can be inspired after a maximal expiration
  34. What is functional residual capacity?
    the volume of air remaining in the body after a passive exhalation
  35. What is total lung capacity?
    the sum of all the volumes
  36. What is inspiratory capacity?
    the maximum inspiratory volume possible after tidal expiration
  37. What is alveolar pressure?
    the pressure within the individual alveolus
  38. What is intrapleural pressure?
    the pressure between parietal and visceral pleurae
  39. What is subglottal pressure?
    the pressure below the vocal folds
  40. What is intraoral pressure?
    the pressure within the mouth
  41. What happens to pressures when the vocal folds are open?
    intraoral = subglottal = alveolar pressure
  42. What happens to pressures when the vocal folds are closed?
    subglottal pressure goes up and intraoral pressure goes down
  43. What are the inspiration and expiration percentages during speech and normal respiration?
    • speech: inspiration = 10% and expiration = 90%
    • normal: inspiration = 40% and expiration = 60%