Test One Bioprocess
Card Set Information
Test One Bioprocess
Test One Bioprocess
Test One over Chapters One, Two and Three
What is a bioreactor?
It is a vessel or a fermenter for microbial or non-microbial cell culture
What are factors that determine the design of a bioreactor?
Properties of biological agent
The nature of raw material or substrate
The nature of the product
The way of processing- batch or continuous
Mixing and gas exchange requirement
Methods of validation and process control
What are the different types of bioreactors based on?
Biological agents used for processing (microbial, non-microbial and enzyme reactors)
Gas requirements (aerobic and anaerobic)
Sterility (Non-aseptic and aseptic)
What does each of the following use?
Stirred tank Reactor
Stirred- agitators and baffle plates
Hydrodynamic- deep jet fermenter- liquid pump for external circulation
What could culturing and product formation be?
In batch- closed system
Continuous (Homogenous and Plug flow)
What is cell recycling?
Used in continous bioreactors where the cell density is reduced due to the removal of fermented product
What the the immobilized cell bioreactor designed to do and what is its application?
Prevent washout of cells
Maintain CO2 level
Prevent build up of biomass
Application- production of monoclonal antibodies
What are the operating modes of bioreactors?
Batch- no additions after innoculation
Fed-Batch- extra nutrients are added as the fermentation progresses
Continuous- an open system where fresh medium is continuously added
What should a bioreactors control system determine?
Temp, pH, Pressure, Aeration, agitation.
What operations are involved in general bioprocessing?
Agitation and mixing
Size reduction and enlargement
What is bioprocessing?
A technique in which microorganisms, living cells, or their components are used as bio-catalyst to produce a desired end product
What are two major causes of cell damage?
Hydrodynamic force or shear forces
Energy from bursting bubbles
What are the properties of an organism that is relevant for bioprocessing?
Nature of strain (pathogenicity, toxin production, strain stability)
Cell culture shape, size and morphology
Cell membrane and transport system
Cell Growth Kinetics
Correlation between growth and production formation
Presence of regulatory enzymes
Activities of intracellular and extracelluar proteases
What are the steps in bioprocessing?
Final Product Processing
What are enzymes?
Can be produced by bioprocessing
Affected by pH and temperature
What are the methods for size enlargement?
Tumbler and mixer agglomeration
What are the disadvantages of bioprocessing over chemical means?
Requires separation of wanted materials
Results in Biological waste
Relatively slow process (many steps)
What are the movement mixers?
The entire container moves
Container is stationary with internal device rotating
A combination of the above two
What are the 2 types of impellers?
Radial flow- not as efficient
Axial flow (used for animal cells) lifts cells from the bottom
How do we reduce the size of cells?
Mills, rollers, crushes
Tissue cutting, homogenization, and mincing or extrusion
Microbial tissue breaking
What is the purpose of size enlargement?
Reduce direct contact
Render powder free flowing
Prevent caking or lumping
What are distillation categories based on?
System compostion- Binary and Multicomponent distillation
Processing mode- continuous and batch
-Stripping- removing Ligh from Heavy
-Rectification- removing Heavy from Light
Fractionation- removing by Strip/Recti at the same time
-Complex Fractionation- a combination of all methods
Which has a large surface area to unit volume ratio, a large or small reactor? Which require addition and removal of heat?
Small has large surface area and requires addition of heat
Large has small surface area and requires removal of heat
What are some disciplines related to bioprocessing?
What are enzyme properties in bioprocessing?
Specificity- substrate range
Stability- effects of pH and temperature range
Solubility- medium for reaction, hydrophobic vs. hydrophillic
Structure, charge, and size- for purification and recovery
What are the advantages of bioprocessing over chemical methods?
Complex organic molecules cant be produced by chemical means
Bioconversion has a higher yield
Operate at a lower temperature and pH
Isomeric compounds are easily excluded
What is distillation?
It separates chemicals by the difference in how easily they vaporize
What are some cell types used in bioprocessing?
Bacteria (gram + and -)
What is agitation?
Agitation is a process of mixing suspension of solids in a liquid to prevent chemical, physical and thermal gradients