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  1. genotype
    an individuals genetic composition
  2. phenotype
    an individuals physical appearance
  3. Mendelian genetics
    cases where genotypes can be easilly matched with phenotypes
  4. stigma
    girl part of the plant
  5. anthers
    boy part of the plant
  6. gene
    unit of hereditary information, usually coats for a protien
  7. homozygous
    individual that carris two copies of the same allele
  8. heterozygous
    an individual that carries two diffrent alleles
  9. dominant
    an allele that can hide the effects of a recessive allele
  10. recessive
    an allele that can be hidden by the effects of a dominant allele
  11. carrier
    a heterozygous individual
  12. quantitative trait
    • traits which show a large range of phenotypes, and are polygenic
    • measure on a scale
  13. polygenic trait
    traits which are influenced by many genes
  14. heritability
    a measure of how much genetics influences a phenotype
  15. two different ways genes get messed up
    • random allignment
    • crossing over
  16. codominance
    shows both parents genotyes, neither dominant or recesive
  17. qualitive
    • genes put into categories
    • 1 single color
  18. multiple allelism
    genes that have 3 or more alleles
  19. haploid
    makes male
  20. diploid
    makes female
  21. X inactivation
    process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated
  22. PCR: polymerase chain reaction
    a set of chemical reactions that copies DNA
  23. VNTR's:Variable Number tandem Repeats
    • Many regions in the human genome have VNTR's
    • They are inherited like genes are inherited
    • they show multiple allelism
    • DNA fingerprinting is asociated with this
  24. restiction enzyme
    an enzyme that cuts DNA as spacific nucliotide sequences
  25. agarose gel
    a jelly-like slabused to separate DNA fragments based on their size
  26. The issue of scale
    Molecuels: cells: organs: multicellular organism
  27. What is safe? (debate in the media)
    (Non-GMO, natural, organic) VS. (GMO, conventional artificial)
  28. DNA nucleotides
    A, T, G, C, (double stand)
  29. RNA nucleotides
    A, U, G, C, (single stand, and can fold up and do other functions)
  30. Protiens
    a single stand polymer made from 20 subunits
  31. Transcription
    the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA
  32. Translation
    the process where ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mature mRNA transcript produced during transcription.
  33. RNA polymerase
    a protein that transcribes a DNA template into an RNA template
  34. Promoter
    is a region of DNA that facilitates the transcription of a particular gene.
  35. mRNA
    messenger RNA, a RNA copy of a DNA gene acts as a template
  36. rRNA
    ribosomal RNA
  37. tRNA
    Transfer RNA, rapped up structural molecule
  38. Gene expresion
    • each cell in your body (execpt sperm and egg) has the same DNA
    • turning a gene on or off
  39. Making exact copies and the issue of scale
    • cloning genes
    • cloning cells
    • cloning organisms
  40. natural cloning examples
    • DNA replication
    • mitosis
    • identical twins
  41. Plasmid
    circular DNA inside bacteria, seprate from geno
  42. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
    • a Sperms package of DNA can be injected into a human egg
    • has led to the birth of an estimated one million babies worldwide
  43. Louise Brown
    Born in 1979, was the first test tube baby
  44. Totipotent stem cells
    cells with the ability to become any part of the body
  45. How to make GMO people (gene therapy for SCID patients)
    • 1.remove immune system cells from patient
    • 2.infect the cells with a virus carrying the normal allele
    • 3.return cells carrying the normal allele
Card Set:
2011-10-10 16:53:59
Ben Libby

Ben Libby
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