Psych110 Chapter 5

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feidtk2498
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107770
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Psych110 Chapter 5
Updated:
2011-10-10 14:35:33
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maturation
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notes and terms for psych chapter five.
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  1. MATURATION
    • biological growth processes
    • that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
  2. COGNITION
    • all the mental activities
    • associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
  3. ASSIMILATION
    • interpreting our new
    • experience in terms of our existing schemas.
  4. ACCOMMODATION
    • adapting our current
    • understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
  5. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
    • in Piaget’s theory, the
    • stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world
    • mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
  6. OBJECT PERMANENCE
    • the awareness that things continue to exist even
    • when not perceived.
  7. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
    • in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to
    • 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not
    • yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
  8. CONSERVATION
    • the principle (which Piaget
    • believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such
    • as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of
    • objects.
  9. EGOCENTRISM
    • in Piaget’s theory, the
    • preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view.
  10. THEORY OF MIND
    • people’s ideas about their
    • own and others’ mental states – about feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and
    • the behaviors these might predict.
  11. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE
    • in Piaget’s theory, the
    • stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during
    • which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically
    • about concrete events.
  12. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
    • in Piaget’s theory, the
    • stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which
    • people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
  13. AUTISM
    • a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by
    • deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’
    • states of mind.
  14. STRANGER ANXIETY
    • the fear of strangers that
    • infants commonly display, begging by about 8 months of age.
  15. ATTACHMENT
    • an emotional tie with
    • another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the
    • caregiver and showing distress on separation.
  16. CRITICAL PERIOD
    • an optional period shortly
    • after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences
    • produces proper development.
  17. IMPRINTING
    • the process by which
    • certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
  18. SELF-CONCEPT
    • our understanding and
    • evaluation of who we are.
  19. ADOLESCENCE
    • the transition period from
    • childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
  20. PUBERTY
    • the period of sexual
    • maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
  21. PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS
    • the body structures
    • (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction
    • possible.
  22. SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERTISTICS
    • non-reproductive sexual
    • characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body
    • hair.
  23. MENARCHE
    • the first menstrual period.
  24. IDENTITY
    • our sense of self;
    • according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by
    • testing and integrating various roles.
  25. SOCIAL IDENTITY
    • the “we” aspect of our
    • self-concept; the part of our answer to “who am I?’ that comes from our group
    • memberships.
  26. INTIMACY
    • in Erikson’s theory, the
    • ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in
    • late adolescence and early adulthood.

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