GRE Psych

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gmcmahon
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107776
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GRE Psych
Updated:
2011-10-10 13:50:30
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GRE Psych
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  1. Learning
    the relatively permanent or stable change in behavior as the result of experience
  2. The law of effect by E.L. Thorndike
    a cause-and-effect chain of behavior revoliving around reinforcement. individuals do what rewards them and stop doing what doesn't bring some reward
  3. Theory of association by Kurt Lewin
    grouping things together based on the fact that they occur together in time and space; organisms associate certain behaviors with certain rewards and certain cues with certain situations
  4. Ivan Pavlov
    first famous as the winner of a Nobel Prize for work on digestion. He accidentally uncovered the concept now called classical conditioning
  5. Classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning
    involves teaching an organism to respond to a neutral stimulus by pairing the neutral stimulus with a not-so-neutral stimulus--> this creates a relationship between the two
  6. John B. Watson
    founded the school of behaviorism; everything could be explained by stimulus-response chains and conditioning was the key factor in developing these chains
  7. B.F. Skinner
    the first scientific experiments to prove the concepts of Thorndike's law of effect and Watson's idea of the causes and effects of behavior; proved that animals are influenced by reinforcement; Skinner box
  8. Neutral Stimulus (NS)
    a stimulus that does not produce a specific response on its own

    Pavlov's experiment:

    this was the light before he conditioned a response to it
  9. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    the not-so-neutral stimulus

    • Pavlov's experiment:
    • the food
  10. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    the neutral stimulus once it has been paired with the UCS
  11. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    the naturally occurring response to the UCS

    • Pavlov's experiment:
    • salivation in response to the food
  12. Conditioned Response (CR)
    the response that the CS elicits after conditioning

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